Table of Contents

  • Change the World
  • The Science of Living in Harmony with Nature

  • Emerald Eco-City offers solutions to ALL of the following:
  • Standing On The Shoulders Of Giants
  • OBJECTIVE ZERO
  • The Physical Ecocity
  • Sociological and Healthy Ecocity
  • The Environmental Ecocity
  • Emerald Eco-City Energy
  • We would love to hear from you on what we doing right and wrong. Your e-mails will be posted on this website on the appropriate page.
    Drop us a line at:
    ZEDmaster@ZeroEnergyDesign.com

    Readers Comments:

    This Page Key Points

    CEEF
    Maximizing Crop Yields
    Greenhouse Orientation
    Glazing Angle

    Description: Transporting food long distances with petroleum cannot possibly continue - It is not just unsustainable, it is also SUICIDAL

    To meet the modern demand for diverse food every day of the year, the average product in American grocery stores travels over 1500 miles, mostly on expensive, unreliable, highly-polluting, imported foreign oil. Some of our common food now comes from half-way-around-the-world.

    Over 20% of the oil consumed in the United States is used to grow, process, and transport food. The cost of petroleum products is the majority of the price of most of our food. From 2009 to 2011, the price of petroleum at the pump rose 80% and the price of many foods rose 80%. As oil supply declines, and prices rise (for any reason), more people will starve to death.

    Emerald Eco-City will show how to EIMINATE the terrible waste of Past-Peak Petroleum in a self-sustaining local urban environment. Our food will cost less, and be of much higher quality, than your oil-addicted factory-farm supermarket offers today.

    Unsustainable Exponential Compound Growth and Decline Food Trends

    (1) As worldwide population continues to explode exponentially (from 2.5 billion in 1950 to 7 billion in 2011), billions more people will soon want cars. Demand for oil (and oil prices) will skyrocket, while Past Peak worldwide oil supplies will sharply decline. http://www.emeraldecocity.com/Energy%20Addict.html We will very soon have no choice but to eliminate oil from our food chain. The sooner we get started, the less traumatic the total transformation will be for our children.

    (2) Freshwater supply aquifers are drying up - due to water over extraction. Man-made global warming, http://www.emeraldecocity.com/Pendulum%20Swing.html desertification http://www.emeraldecocity.com/desertification.html and deforestation http://www.emeraldecocity.com/deforestation.html are increasing droughts and famines. Urbanization and population growth http://www.emeraldecocity.com/Urbanization.html are converting over a million acres per year into urban sprawl. Worldwide farmland has been declining rapidly since year 2000, while planet population is increasing exponentially with a compound growth rate increase in demand for food. Over a billion people are starving on less than one cup of food per day.

    (3) USA food imports have increased 400% in only one decade. Starving countries like Haiti are sending food to gluttonous morbidly-obese Americans. FDA food inspectors are monitoring FEWER shipments of imported food - resulting in increasing death rates from food-borne diseases. MOST American food import ports have NO FDA INSPECTORS AT ALL. Bad food exporters know very-well how to get their contaminated food into USA. 2011 Republican maniacs are trying to REDUCE funding for food safety monitoring, so they can give tax breaks and subsidies to parasitic economy-destroying billionaires.

    (4) From the time that Bush / Cheney took office until mid-2011, the value of the U.S. dollars fell 85% (relative to gold). http://www.emeraldecocity.com/Collapse.html In less than two years, food and fuel prices jumped up about 80%. Our government subsidizes low-quality high-fat and high-fructose diabetes-causing factory food. As oil prices continue to rise in the future, low-quality, deadly food will become increasingly-more expensive. Is this the legacy you want to leave your children?

    Emerald Eco-City offers solutions for all of these deadly well-documented trends:

    Unsustainable Food Trends Production, Cost and Quality

     

    The entire world is long overdue for radical reinvention of how we produce & deliver our food

    Transporting food long distances cannot possibly continue. Total addiction to food from more than a hundred miles away is not only globally unsustainable, the end of cheap oil will Exterminate Humanity - unless we eliminate petroleum from our food.

    We now have only two 21ST Century choices: (1)Grow most of our own food locally without oil, or (2) STARVE.

     

    Imminent Collapse of our Fuel-and-Food-Buying Fiat Currency - The CSA Solution

    Besides the many problems with our obsolete unsustainable petroleum-based food production / transportation system, there is another much-worse problem knocking on our door. The world's faith-based U.S. dollar fiat-currency system is on the verge of total Collapse. http://www.emeraldecocity.com/collapse.html

    Since Bush / Cheney took office, the U.S. dollar gold-purchasing-power has plummeted about 85% (from $250 / oz to over $1600 / oz). Current unpayable U.S. debt, ongoing creation of worthless dollars out of thin air, terrible balance of trade, financial system corruption, and deadly gridlocked partisan politics are accelerating the international dollar collapse toward 100% devaluation (we are already 85% there today).

    Consider the predictable possibility that very-shortly the U.S. may become totally worthless. An SUV full of $100 bills won't buy a tank of gas, or a loaf of bread. It HAS happened to every previous great empire's faith-based fiat currency. It is 100% guaranteed to happen to the U.S. dollar, eventually. The only question is will it be tomorrow, or later?

    If bank-book computer digital-bit entries say that you own a billion dollars, and dollars predictably become worthless, YOU WILL BE WORTHLESS. 1,000,000,000 x 0 = 0 It might suddenly happen any day now - No one knows for sure - We can only study recent trends, and history.

    WHEN the dollar is worth 0, will your family starve to death?

    Apples will still grow on trees, but without cheap oil, we cannot transport them 1500 miles away to consumers.

    Apples may rot in fields, and a $100 bill may not buy one apple in most of the USA and elsewhere.

    We must find a way to grow and deliver all the food we need 365-days-a-year - within bicycle distance of our homes.

    Emerald Eco-City is the shovel-ready answer

    Are you investing the finite time of your life accumulating declining dollars, which are well on the way toward becoming WORTHLESS?

    WHEN the dollar collapses (soon), we will have no money, BUT we will still have each other

    Let's assume that you were a thoughtful, intelligent person who is concerned about the 85% international devaluation of the U.S. dollar since 2001.

    You are worried about the fact that so much of what Americans consume is imported, and the declining dollar makes imports more expensive.

    You have children, and you are deeply concerned about what they will eat a year or two from now. What would a rational person do TODAY?

    One rapidly-growing trend is called Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) - locally-grown organic food cooperatives. Friendly people like you invest their time and effort in nearby food production, which is shared equitably with other participating productive CSA members.

    Even if our economy remains stable, the dollar does not collapse, and the pump price of gasoline stays the same, (which is unlikely) - Your CSA food will cost less, and the freshness and quality will be superior to non-organic factory-farm / supermarket declining old food, with unhealthy life-threatening chemical preservatives, herbicides, pesticides, and broad-spectrum biocides. (All "Biocides" are "life killers" - Do you want your children to eat them? They are early painful death on the installment plan.)

    If you were to lose your job today, immediately plant a backyard "Victory Garden" and join (or start) a CSA. Even apartment dwellers can grow some organic food 365 in mobile pots next to southern windows, or in a closet with a T5HO grow light and hydroponics. In fact, home-grown healthy food is a good idea even if you think you MIGHT lose your job, or you are having difficulty making ends meet, or you care about the heath, happiness, and longevity of your family.

    Start learning how to cost-effectively grow local food today. There are many details needed to optimize production.

    High-quality organic food production requires less petroleum, but a bit more labor, which is NOT a problem when there are millions of people who want to work, but cannot find a job during times of economic collapse (caused by the unsustainable top 1% of greedy wealth-hoarding millionaires).

    Suppose that you become a member of a healthy CSA that is within bicycle distance of your home.

    Suppose that the U.S. dollar becomes worthless overnight, gasoline price triples, or you lose your source of income, due to some catastrophic corrupt political, natural or international event.

    CSA members could go on living their lives as normal. Your family would still have the same amount of high-quality local organic food to eat. You would spend more time at your CSA, which would become an enlightenment beacon to the world - to show others how to live a sustainable prosperous future.

    If you were among the first to wisely own a laptop computer or a smart phone, consider becoming a CSA "early adopter."

    During "The Great Depression," far more Americans lived in prosperous agricultural communities than today. Except for those who had over-extracted limited water creating the Grapes-of-Wrath "Dust Bowl", people in self-sustaining agricultural communities had plenty of good food to eat, whereas crowded-city dwellers starved, and many bankrupt Wall Street parasites committed suicide.

    WHEN the U.S. dollar completely collapses (worse than The Great Depression - soon), and unsustainable petroleum becomes unaffordable, close-knit agricultural communities (like the Amish Mennonites) may look like very-wise futuristic heroes (who knows?).

    There ARE viable agricultural alternatives to modern American unsustainable suicide

    "There is something wrong with a man that doesn't love a horse"
    "Live your life so that whenever you lose, you're ahead."

    - Will Rogers During The Great Depression Starvation

    Amish Mennonite Hose and Buggy Farm

     

    Emerald Eco-City will be the world's most-successful CSA and Sustainability University

    It has the benefits of a world-class CSA, plus a mutually-supportive diverse optimized megacity

    Does this interest you at all? Do you care about the security of your family?

    Are you already a member of a growing happy friendly local CSA? You should be.
    Many struggling experienced organic family farms would love to work with you.
    If you find a good one, promote it. If you can't, start one with your local friends.
    The KEY to near-term survival will be close-knit mutually-supportive communities.

     

    How Do You Grow Tropical Citrus Fruit 365-Days-A-Year, Near Washington D.C.?

    America's founding fathers like George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were large land owners and passionate Agricultural Scientists. They intensely studied the state of the art of effective food production from Europe and the American states. Mount Vernon was an 8,000-acre working farm. A small improvement in efficiency was quite valuable.

    George Washington's personal library at Mount Vernon includes a 1728 book on greenhouse techniques. Washington studied an effective solar greenhouse in Baltimore Maryland, and then designed his own larger version (shown below).

    Washington raised exotic tropical plants like oranges, lemons, and aloe in boxes in his greenhouse in the winter, and then moved them outside after the last freeze.

    Some of the seeds for his plantation were germinated early in his greenhouse, which elongated the growing season, and enhanced farm productivity.

    Glass was expensive in Washington's day. They could only make small panes by melting sand in small high-temperature wood-or-coal-fired furnaces.

    Note that reasonable solar greenhouses do NOT use roof-angled glass (which loses heat on winter nights, and is a solar furnace in the summer).

    Essentially all of the glass was only on one side (to prevent overheating in the summer). Note the bright-white interior to reflect sunlight to the darker plant leaves.

    The technology for a 365 tropical-plant solar greenhouse is NOT NEW, but the principles of solar energy design and construction have been largely ignored for a hundred years, since the introduction of electricity, unsustainable natural gas, and heating oil.

    In Washington's day, walls and ceilings were not well insulated, so they burned wood in fireplaces to keep plants from freezing on cold winter nights.

    Washington's Mount Vernon greenhouse had other buildings on the sides, to help insulate the walls. Trees on the back side helped buffer cold winter wind.

    Today, we know how to construct less-expensive zero-emission (never burn anything) 365 tropical-plant solar greenhouses.

    What we need is education of hungry people with an open mind.

    George Washington's 1765 Mount Vernon 365 Tropical-Food Solar Greenhouse

    George Washington's Mount Vernon 365 Tropical Food Solar Greenouse - Exterior and Interior

     

    Today's Critical Need for 365-Day-Per-Year Solar Greenhouse Horticulture

    Since the growing season in most of America is less-than all-year-long, CSA's MUST learn to make much better use of year-round Advanced-Technology SUSTAINABLE SOLAR GREENHOUSE PERMACULTURE, INDOOR VERTICAL FARMING, HYDROPONICS and AQUACULTURE.

    Weather-related stress on plants is a critical concern in traditional outdoor agriculture. It dramatically impacts crop yields, crop failures, famines, starvation, productivity, profitability and bankruptcy. Plant stress may be caused by abnormal temperature (hot or cold), humidity (high or low), seasonal solar radiation, heavy rain, flooding, hail, drought, freezing, insufficient soil nutrients, salinity, pollution, oxidation, acid rain, soil-and-water toxicity, insects, aggressive weeds, disease, harmful microorganisms, etc.

    All of these stress-related food-crop issues are much easier to control in a state-of-the-art scientifically-managed solar greenhouse environment - which is the locally-grown food foundation for our self-sufficient Emerald Eco-City (and all sustainable urban CSA environments of the near future).

    The research and experiments that are already going on right now to support our future self-sufficient Moon and Mars colonies will also be necessary for humanity to survive on Earth, in our world with no more cheap petroleum available )and a collapsed fiat currency).

    To live abundantly and sustainably on Earth, we must learn how to live well in the harsh conditions of outer space. 365 self-sustaining solar greenhouses are a first step.

    Efficient Commercial Hydroponics

    Urban Indoor Vertical Farming

    Emerald Eco-City will build on well-documented off-the-shelf sustainable solar greenhouse permaculture.

    We will invest heavily in the World’s Largest Effort to rapidly advance cost-effective CSA solar-greenhouse techniques, methods, tools and skill-transfer training.

    When we first open our doors during our ramp up period, most of our food will come from nearby CSA growers (within roughly a hundred miles or so). We will establish establish local CSA membership, and contracts that meet our high-quality standards for healthy organic food and reusable (non-disposable) packaging.

    Over a two-year period, we expect to rapidly ramp up our own internal CSA food-growing capabilities. Local food growers (that we are pleased with), will be offered space to expand their business inside Emerald Eco-City, and live there if they would like, as we move toward our ultimate goal of cost-effective, no-petroleum, 365-solar-greenhouse self-sufficiency.

     

    Traditional two-dimensional flat-land outdoor agriculture requires very-roughly an acre (50,000 sq.ft.) of cropland per person.

    For a million people, 2D traditional farming would require 50,000,000,000 (50 billion) sq.ft., which is NOT currently cost effective in a 2D greenhouse.

    There is simply NOT enough 2D agricultural land and water on the entire Earth to support American-level food consumption for 7 billion people (times an acre of cropland each), especially where the growing season is less than 365 days per year.

     

    With traditional agricultural methods, Earth can only support about 2.5 billion people abundantly. ONE BILLION PEOPLE on Earth are now starving with less-than one cup of food available to them per day.

    The Unsustainable Suicide of Humanity has already begun

     

    Most self-centered obese Americans refuse to think that starvation is a real problem. They have eyes but refuse to see the Truth. They deny the reality around them.

    "People hear what they want to hear, and disregard the rest." - Simon and Garfunkel

    We MUST have a working practical prototype of exactly "HOW" to solve the population-growth / starvation problem very soon. We must have early adopters, who will help humanity avoid starvation.

    We live in a time of fantastic new technology and unprecedented high productivity. There is NO REASON why we cannot eliminate all poverty and starvation around the world, EXCEPT FOR SELFISH NON-SHARING WEALTH-ACCUMULATION GREED (which dominates USA Corrupt Squanderlust Consumerism Corpocracy).

     

    One of the original 3D Vertical Farming proposals called for an urban building with a 5-acre footprint - 30-stories high (7,500,000 total sq.ft.) - just to feed 50,000 people.

    It would take fifty such buildings (that are in no-way shaded by other buildings) to feed a million people. Emerald Eco-City MUST be more efficient than that.

    The following material explains many of the details of exactly "HOW."

    Fertigation is the application of fertilizers, soil additives, or other water-soluble agricultural products through an irrigation system. Chemigation is a related (sometimes interchangeable) term referring to the application of chemicals through an irrigation system. In general, it is much better to use drip irrigation instead of spraying water into the air. Sprayed water evaporates expensively, along with air-soluble chemicals. Water exposed to sunlight encourages the grow of many pathogens that can damage plant root systems. Underground irrigation is worth the added cost and effort to install. If the system is designed with small nozzles, frequent maintenance may be required. Failure to properly maintain may damage or kill the crop. Intelligent design and installation will reduce maintenance costs and crop loses due to system failures.

    Permaculture imitates the symbiotic synergistic (1 + 1 = 3) relationships that are found in natural ecologies.

    The study of permaculture leads toward a sustainable abundant lifestyle in harmony with Nature.
    The term is a contraction of "permanent agriculture", which must be our primary Emerald Eco-City goal.

    ZeroEnergy Design Passive-Solar Greenhouse provides a year-round food growth capability at minimum operating cost. Unhealthy pesticides and herbicides are usually not required in a well-designed-and-maintain permaculture greenhouse environment. We will NOT use any man-made laboratory-chemical fertilizers from unsustainable fossil fuels.

    Vertical Farming adds a third dimension to greenhouse growing space. Each additional layer increases plant production. Many food crop plants are less than three feet high, which grow efficiently in well-designed 3D passive-solar greenhouse layers. We must develop innovative ways to optimize the use of every 3D cubic unit of greenhouse space.

    Hydroponic Aquaculture / Aquaponics can increase food production yields over five fold per square foot per 3D vertical farming layer (well over ten fold total). Our Emerald Eco-City water can be recycled forever. Water on Earth is billions of years old. Permaculture involve continual water reuse, just like Earth's natural biosphere already does.

    Hydroponic Systems grow food without conventional soil. The roots grow in nutrient-rich aerated water. Stagnant water will not work. Recirculating hydroponic water 0must have the correct water / air mixture. Air consists of 20% oxygen and 70% nitrogen.

    Fertigation was a first historical step toward the evolution of hydroponic science. The difference is that fertigation / chemigation use traditional dirt farming, whereas permaculture solar-greenhouse hydroponics does not. Dirt farming requires far more acreage. Hydroponics and aquaponics systems can have more plants per acre, and they can be stacked vertically, (which is especially valuable in crowded urban-area vertical farming, where real estate costs are high). Local food production greatly reduces transportation cost and time - delivering high-quality fresher food at lower total cost.

    Hydroponic / aquaponic computer-sensor and failsafe control systems precisely measure many things (such as in the water: pH, oxygen, multiple nutrient content, and in the air: temperature, humidity, dissolved oxygen, CO2 sunlight), and then the self-learning intelligent computers will automatically adjust our many control systems accordingly.

    Each type of plant can have different macro-and-micro nutrient requirements. Sensor data and crop yields will be logged, analyzed, and used for future seasonal operation optimization. Day models can be developed (e.g. sunny winter day, cloudy spring day, etc.). Weather reports and forecasts can help anticipate how our computers should control the growth systems tomorrow.

    All of our water will be precisely purified, controlled and recycled continuously with no sewer required.

    Direct solar gain will be used to maintain the temperature of air and water to optimize plant growth for each variety of food crop.

    Plants must have CO2 to grow. Our solar greenhouses will slightly enrich the air from today's 400 ppm to 550 ppm, which has been shown to improve some plant yields by 30%.

    Excess oxygen from the plant greenhouses will be concentrated and used to ensure that living and working people areas are a health 21%-to-22% oxygen content. Exhaled CO2 will be moved to the green plant areas ( 1 + 1 = 3 ). Just like Nature, every system output will be a valuable input to other system(s).

    Aeroponics is similar to Hydroponics, but the plant roots are suspended in air and sprayed with recycled nutrient-rich water. It is appropriate for only certain types of plants. Aeroponics can be used to start root growth just after germination, and then plants can be transferred to a hydroponics system, when their roots are long enough to reach the water below.

    Aquaculture is the process of raising seafood in a controlled environment. Herbivorous fish will be raised in healthy controlled fresh water. We will not raise any unhealthy carnivorous animals, fish or fowl for food in Emerald Eco-City.

    Mariculture is Aquaculture in salt water. Nets and wire cages can be used to raise salt water fish and shellfish (like prawns and oysters) in a clean, green, self-sustaining floating (or submersible) ecocity at a distance away from human water pollution (which badly contaminates Earth's coastlines).

    Mariculture is also possible in ponds near bodies of salt water, but future climate-change sea level rise makes this unsustainable for the long term.

    Emerald Eco-City will be built well inland, at higher elevation, so we will not use Mariculture. But, another Zero Energy Design® oceanic ecocity is certainly a feasible future possibility - as humans over populate the land, pollute their fresh water, and continue to kill wild-ocean populations by overfishing.

    Many Emerald Eco-City self-contained sustainability technologies will work very-well at sea in the open ocean.

    90% of the world's large food fish have been unsustainably devastated in recent years.

    Mariculture can provide cost-effective, controlled, fish-population restoration (which Zero Energy Design® encourages others to do - we will be glad to help).

    Aquaponics use the symbiotic 1 + 1 = 3 synergy of fresh water Aquaculture fish excrements in water for Hydroponic nutrient fertilizer, which produces food for people and fish. Ammonia and nitrates kill fish, whereas, plants thrive on them in symbiotic synergy.

    Aquaponics complete a naturally-balanced circle of healthy sustainable life - efficiently converting sunlight into abundant food for humans.

    Automated Emerald Eco-City aquaponics systems will cost-effectively maintain a natural balance between our Aquaculture Fish and Hydroponic Plants.

    We will raise our own herbivorous fish food (such as healthy duck weed). This will also enable low-cost production of domestic waterfowl (as food and for eggs).

    The entire Emerald Eco-City solar plant greenhouse and people areas will operate with holistic system integration engineering symbiotic synergy - having enormous unprecedented economies of scale for abundant healthy luxury living in harmony with Nature, and with each other. We will gladly share our lessons learned and proven prosperity with the world.

    Vermiponics use the fertilizer-producing effect of natural earthworms for Hydroponics. Worms will play an important role in composting and recycling byproducts of food growth.

    Different forms of the above match the requirements of different types of plants in 365 greenhouse vertical farming.

    We encourage you to search the Internet for the latest extensive articles and many videos about the above mission-critical solar greenhouse / vertical farming subjects.

    We recommend that self-motivated students begin to experiment with small-scale versions of the above at home.

    When the world runs out of low-cost petroleum in the near future, our society will have to radically reinvent how we locally raise cost-effective nutritious food 365 days a year.

    People who know how will soon become very valuable. Encourage your children to study future sustainability in harmony with Nature. Have fun experimenting at home.

     

    Beware Of Today's Many Internet Aquaponics Scam Artists

    The Internet contains many very-valuable webpages and video clips about emerging, popular, aquaponics technology for first-time do-it-yourselfers. There are permaculture education groups and generous individuals who have made their accumulated information available in the public domain. We commend their effort, and encourage you to do your own Internet literature search (but beware of the many pitfalls).

    One problem is that much of this free information comes from first-time inexperienced amateur experimenters. You have to filter through that for yourself. No single source has all of the answers for all climatic conditions, all crops, and all types of fish. Some of the Internet information is just plain wrong, or at a minimum "unoptimized" and incomplete.

    Another problem is that scholarly, advanced-permaculture technology, and advanced-degree thesis papers may be written in a complicated jargon that average DIY home gardeners do not understand. There is good-and-valuable information hidden therein, but it may be well beyond the patience and attention span of newbie aquaponics hobbyists.

    Thirdly, the Internet is full of websites where many poorly-educated inexperienced entrepreneurs are selling high-markup kits for hydroponics and aquaponics beginners. Most of the vendors also have connections to the illegal-drug industry that is doing great personal health damage to our young people. Do NOT support illegal hydroponics.

    Once you understand the basics of hydroponics and aquaponics, you can easily build your own small-scale DIY plumbing system for a fraction of the cost of a starter kit. However, when you begin adding the necessary monitor-and-control systems (which are not included in beginner kits), the total cost can increase rapidly. Small-scale system designs, do NOT scale up to large commercial operations, which are significantly different.

    Large-scale hydroponics and aquaponic systems are a complex design-and-operation problem to solve. A single novice mistake can kill an entire crop or tank of valuable fish. Even the best commercial greenhouses occasionally have problems that require superior laboratory test equipment to diagnose and determine the best solution. Time if of the essence. Severe damage can be done in only an hour.

    AND, that brings us down to the deceptive Internet aquaponics scam artists. Sadly, they are giving the industry a bad name. They promise outrageous things are are indeed "Too Good To Be True."

    For example, one of them offers a small, incomplete, ineffective, aquaponics eBook for $40 that will supposedly show you how to build an 8' x 12' backyard aquaponics system for $100 in only half a day. His false-hope hyperbole says that after the very-first month, his system cut his family food bill in half, and that after only two months, it provided for all of his family's food needs. He claims that it has worked for thousands of people. THIS IS PURE IMPOSSIBLE BULLSHIT!

    If you believe such things are possible, then I would like to sell you some real estate on the moon. (chuckle)

     

    Living In Harmony With Nature Requires Knowledge Of Basic Earth Cycle Biology Mathematics

    Unsustainable factory farming ignores Biology 101: “Introduction to Biology.”
    By overexploiting only one aspect of agriculture, future food potential is damaged.

     

    We must understand and balance the fundamental “Cradle To Cradle” mathematical equations.

    SUSTAINABLE food production demands CIRCULAR LOGIC

    Basic Biological Cycle Equations: Energy (Sun), Water (Rain), Oxygen (Respiration), Carbon (Energy Storage and Plant Structure), Nitrogen (Nucleic Acid, Protein / Animal Structure), Phosphorous (Cell Membranes and Nucleic Acid), Potassium (Metabolism / Synthesis), Sulfur (proteins, vitamins, hormones), Food, Living Dirt / Essential Nutrients, Food Chains / Web of Life.


    Biogeochemical cycles overlap and interact in ways that must be kept in sustainable balance

     

    Biology Water Cycle

     

     

    Biology Food Cycle

     

     

    In a healthy sustainable ecosystem, Nature keeps all "Circle Of Life" cycles in harmonious balance. Food and water consumers match the supply. If there is insufficient food or water for a growing population, animals and plants must learn how to migrate elsewhere, or die. Predators make their prey stronger and faster by eating the weak and the slow (so they cannot reproduce). Interference with the Laws of Nature creates unhealthy unsustainable imbalance.

     

    Nature is the final arbitrator of what is in balance (or not). Humans can NOT violate fundamental Laws of Nature and survive for long.

    In Nature, the word “waste” has no meaning. Natural life forms and processes have familiar inputs and outputs. The output of one is input to others NO WASTE. Inputs and outputs MUST be maintained in balance, or early death will occur to at least one life form (maybe many). Nature dynamically rebalances any variations. Nature does NOT produce deadly concentrations of Radioactive WASTE. Humans fail to provide round-trip biocycles for our endless production of deadly waste.

     

    Humans invented “waste”, landfills, and unnatural levels of toxic pollution – unbalancing essential biological cycles in unsustainable, deadly ways. The hand of man has overwhelmed Nature's ability to repair damage at the rate it is currently being done. Shortsighted UNSUSTAINABLE lifestyle decisions are guaranteed to have serious consequences.

     

    Failure to take immediate corrective action is not only Extremely Immoral - A high crime against posterity - It is also SUICIDAL In The Short Term.

     

     

    Understanding Air: Nitrogen and the Oxygen / Carbon Dioxide Life-Giving Cycle

    The diameter of the Earth is nearly 8,000 miles, but our delicate breathable atmosphere is only about 3 miles thick.

    Our best telescopes can barely see light from other stars that are nearly 14 billion light years away, but we have yet to discover any other planets with an atmosphere an environment that could support Earth’s many diverse plant and animal life forms.

    Earth is probably not unique in the cosmos, but as far as we can observe, it most certainly is extremely rare. There is nothing similar to Earth that we are likely to visit in the 21st century.

    If we fail to understand and obey the Immutable Laws of Nature, and we continue destroying our Earthly Garden of Eden habitat at the current rate, we WILL self exterminate in the very-near future.

    If humans do not radically reinvent our unsustainable lifestyle, then we WILL be replaced very soon by more-intelligent species (like dolphins, etc.) that understand Earth’s environment much better than humans do, and how to live in harmony with Nature and each other.

    Do you live in an unsustainable deadly city? Are you happy with the status quo? If you could not afford to transport anything more than 100 miles from where you are right now, would your family survive? Will life be better or worse for your children and their children?

    What will their lives depend upon? Will it be there tomorrow? Do you care?

    Our International Space Station must take Earth’s life-giving atmosphere with it, at a very high cost. They recycle the air that they breathe. If humans survive long enough to establish permanent colonies on the Moon and Mars, we will have to do something similar, but in a much-more-cost-effective way.

    The survival and prosperity of humanity very-much depends on our knowledge and care of our atmosphere. Emerald Eco-City will demonstrate for the entire world to see exactly the path that humans must pursue to avoid insane suicide – beginning with our air. Consider the basics:

     

    Biology  Natural Carbon Cycle

     

     

     

    Biology Suicidal Carbon Cycle

    Any profiteering human who remotely suggests that 7 BILLION humans can continue burning ANYTHING
    and killing billions of green trees does NOT have the first clue about high-school Introduction To Biology!

     

    Atmospheric Composition

    The life-giving air that animals breathe and plants use for photosynthesis is about 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, and roughly 1% trace gases (including carbon dioxide). For thousands of recent years, these numbers have been fairly stable, BUT in the last 150 years of humans industrialization and deforestation, Earth's atmospheric composition is changing in an unsustainable suicidal way.

    Glacial and polar ice core samples show that for many millennia atmospheric carbon dioxide remained about 270 Parts Per Million (PPM), which is roughly 0.0003 (0.03%) of the air that animals breathe (while oxygen is 210,000 PPM). Today, Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide is nearly 400 PPM and still rising at an alarming .6% per year. This trend is NOT sustainable. It is changing our climate, altering plant-and-animal habitats, melting ice caps, and beginning to make sea level rise.

     

    Biospheric Balance

    Earth's plant and animal life forms have evolved to thrive in our naturally-available atmospheric and climatic conditions. Billions of years ago, Earth was covered with molten rock that was over 2,000O F, where no modern life forms could possibly exist. As Earth cooled, single-cell life forms emerged. They evolved into multiple-cell forms that eventually became plants, but there was initially no free oxygen for animals to breathe. Photosynthesis evolved, which uses sunlight to convert CO2 and H2O into plant-building carbohydrates, and release O2, which allowed air-breathing animals to evolve. The original carbon dioxide for the first plants came from volcanoes and fires. In modern times, Nature uses the Carbon Cycle (above) to keep the biosphere in balance with the proper ratio of plant-to-animal life forms.

    When a natural event like a volcano or forest fire increases the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Nature causes plants to increase their growth rate as much as 30% to 40%, which brings carbon dioxide back down to where it has been for thousands of years. This is called "The Gaia Effect" or "Nature's Carbon Cycle Biospheric Balance."

    The catastrophic crisis that Earth faces today is that in the infestation of humans has doubled and redoubled in less than a century to about 7 billion hungry carbon-dioxide-producing people, which has overwhelmed Gaia by suicidally destroying over half of Earth's trees, and badly polluting both air and water. At this rate, self extermination is only decades away. There is absolutely no way to escape the scientific fact that birth rate MUST be curtailed, or death rate increased, or both. If humans do not change our unsustainable lifestyle immediately, and rapidly restore biospheric balance, Nature WILL do what must be done for us.

     

    Air Is A Mixture Of Multiple Gases, not a single chemical compound

    The molecular weight of dry air (excluding water vapor) is 29 kg/kmol. Nitrogen (78% of air) is 28. Oxygen (21%) is heavier at 32. Carbon Dioxide (.03%) is even heavier at 44. Hydrogen (.00005%) is the lightest gas of all with a molecular weight of only 2 kg/kmol. Hydrogen-filled balloons rise rapidly in the atmosphere, to nearly 100,000 feet above Earth.

    If there is a fire in a house with a basement, the oxygen will be depleted, hot toxic byproducts of combustion will rise by natural convection toward the top of the room, heavier carbon dioxide will fall and fill the basement, and suffocate any animals that remain in the basement. DO NOT HIDE IN A BASEMENT DURING A FIRE.

    If carbon dioxide rises to only 1% (10,000 PPM) of the air that animals breathe, the CO2 will kill animals or humans like they have been shot with a gun.

     

    Buoyancy and Mixing of Multiple Atmospheric Gases

    If you have a stagnant air-tight enclosed column of air at ambient room temperature with no heat source, the heavier gases will fall to the bottom and the lighter gases will naturally rise to the top in stratified layers. From top to bottom you will have: Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon Dioxide at the bottom (plus a few other small amounts of less-significant trace gases).

    If you would like to ad oxygen to a crowded room to freshen the air, you would like to add it from the ceiling, and let it naturally move down to the occupants.

    If there is a fire in the room you are in and you cannot breathe, crawl on your knees where there is more oxygen and less hot byproducts of combustion, but do not go down into a basement to escape a fire, or you will suffocate when the oxygen is depleted and carbon dioxide rise above the toxic level of 1%.

    In Earth's 3-mile-thick breathable atmosphere, the various gases are constantly being stirred and mixed together by the wind. The sun shines on the Earth, heating the surface and the lowest level of air. Warm air molecules move farther apart, and therefore become lighter and more buoyant. Warm air rises to higher elevations like a hot-air balloon, where it is cooled, becomes more dense, and falls back to Earth in a continuous natural convection flow loop.

    Greenhouse gases (like carbon dioxide and methane) change the effect of trapped sunlight on atmospheric temperature differentials. As seasons change, there are huge windstorms that help equalize changing air pressures from the equator to the poles. Earth's rotation and mountains act like giant fan blades that help stir and mix all of our atmospheric gases very well - in a big biosphere-balance blender.

    Most of the heavier breathing oxygen in air remains within three miles of sea level, and there is only a very-small amount (.03%) of carbon dioxide mixed with the oxygen near the surface, for use by plants during photosynthesis.

    High-altitude airplanes must be pressurized so humans can breathe. Climbers of Earth's highest mountains must take oxygen with them to survive. The higher you go, the thinner the air gets, until you reach the near-vacuum of outer space.

    Nearby planets in our solar system have nothing like Earth's delicate life-giving atmosphere. The 95% CO2 in Mars' thin atmosphere would be instantly deadly if breathed by humans (who die quickly in only 1% CO2).

     

    Photosynthetic Plants Love Carbon Dioxide / Animals Love Oxygen (in the proper percentage mixture)

    If you put a healthy plant in an air-tight transparent box, and give it the proper amount of light, water, and nutrients, it will use up the carbon dioxide in the box, and die due to lack of CO2.

    If you put a healthy human in an air-tight box, and give it the proper amount of fresh water, nutritious food, (and an internet connection, smile), it will soon die. Why?

    The common answer is "The human will use up the oxygen and suffocate." This oversimplified answer has an element of truth, but it is not exactly correct. Before the human in the air-tight box uses up the 21% oxygen that it started with, the carbon dioxide level will rise above 1%. This lethal level of CO2 will kill you, even though the room has sufficient O2 for you to survive. Didja know that?

    Humans can survive as long as the oxygen content of air is above about 16% (depending on several factors like air pressure and altitude).

    21% O2 is normal atmosphere on Earth. 17% causes anoxia (your fingernails begin to turn blue). 10-14% you become dizzy - your brain does function well. 6-8% you will collapse, 3-6 % causes death by asphyxiation within 6-8 minutes, and less than 3% causes rapid death in only 45 seconds.

    The percent of oxygen in the air we breathe is a "Goldilocks" problem: You do not want too little, but you also do not want too much O2.

    Excessive oxygen above 26% (in a person with normal respiratory function) accelerates the oxidative aging process and can cause other life-threatening medical problems.

    People who care about their health eat nutritious organic fresh fruits and vegetables (with Vitamin C, etc.) to SLOW the "oxidative aging process."

    Oxidation causes cumulative DNA damage. High O2 (and "free radical ions" like O3 ozone) accelerate the mutation cellular rate and the growth of cancer cells.

    Faddish "oxygen bars" introduced multiple avoidable health risks. They were always a really-stupid idea that was sold to gullible mediocre minds.

    Too much oxygen makes everything around it much-more flammable. Lethal design with a pure oxygen crew capsule killed astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee in the violent Apollo 1 fire on January 27, 1967 - It was a major 20-month set back in America's time-pressured race to place Men on the Moon, while the life support systems were totally redesigned to use a reasonable safer oxygen level.

     

    Improving Plant Growth Rate and Crop Yields By 30% with CO2 Enrichment

    Although the current level of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere is nearly 400 PPM, the CO2 level near the center of a weatherized commercial greenhouse can fall below 200 PPM, which measurably slows plant growth and lowers flower-and-food production.

    Multiple studies have shown that enriching the air in a weatherized greenhouse to 550 PPM CO2 (during photosynthesis, when the plants are lighted) can increase tomato crop yields nearly 30%.

    (1) Crowded high-yield commercial greenhouses need CO2 enrichment above atmospheric 400 PPM to 550 PPM.

    (2) Crowded rooms with multiple people need O2 enrichment to restore the normal healthy 21%-to-22% O2 level.

    These two fundamental Laws of Nature work together nicely to synergistic ( 1 + 1 = 3 ) symbiotic advantage in our potentially-air-tight Emerald Eco-City.

    We will move excess O2 from our huge food-crop greenhouse areas into the people living areas (when occupied), and we will move excess CO2 from the people areas (and from our internal composting processes) to the center of our high-yield food-crop greenhouse production areas (when light is available for plant photosynthesis) .

    People will be refreshed and happy at work, home, exercise and play, and plant growth will increase nearly 30% (depending on species).

    As in Nature's Biospheric Balance, the output of one ecocity process is input to another - No waste, No pollution - Delightful !

     

    Next Questions: How Do We Move Just the O2 from our Greenhouses to our People Areas ?
    AND: How Do We Enrich our Greenhouse CO2 Level ABOVE 400 PPM to 550 PPM ?

    We could just use fans and ducts, but that would not do much better than raising depleted greenhouse CO2 from 200 PPM to about 400 PPM (outdoor ambient atmosphere level). That is better for plants than 200 PPM in a weatherized greenhouse during extreme outdoor temperature, but WE CAN DO BETTER and raise CO2 to our increased-yield target of 550 PPM.

    Let's begin with the problem of moving JUST the excess O2 from our greenhouse to our people areas. (Reducing the greenhouse O2 level will coincidentally increase the CO2 percentage.)

    There is a well-known, commonplace, simple, inexpensive way to extract oxygen from any atmospheric mixture. It is called an "oxygen concentrator." They are used at home and as a mobile device to enrich the air that people with respiratory problems need.

    In essence, oxygen concentrators take in air that is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. They filter out the nitrogen and provide a flow of 93% concentrated oxygen (for use for a variety of different medical and other purposes). The nitrogen filtering agent is "Zeolite" or other various forms of low-cost non-toxic "aluminum silicates" (which are also used for water purification, food additives, laboratory work, etc.).

    Emerald Eco-City will realize a huge "economy of scale" by building the world's largest set of high-efficiency low-cost oxygen concentrators. The required air movement can be zero-energy solar powered, by wind-driven intersecting-vane gas compressors, or by other inexpensive means.

    Oxygen concentrators are not free. We estimate that with our unprecedented economy of scale, our system will cost over $100 million USD. This is only about 0.0013 of our $77 billion project - hardly even a small drop in a big bucket. Our oxygen concentrators will quickly payback their investment by providing a healthier, more-productive environment for plants and people, reducing the need to bring in, filter, and condition outside air, and thereby reduce energy consumption and related capital investment, labor and maintenance costs.

    We would draw heavy oxygen-rich air from near the base of our greenhouses, pass it through our oxygen concentrators, and then introduce a measured amount of 93% O2 through vents in the ceiling of high-density people areas (when they are occupied).

    Our normal target goal will be approximately 22% continuously-monitored oxygen content in occupied areas. A small amount of demand-based O2 can be optionally injected into bedrooms during individual sleeping times. Any time or place where oxygen content drops slightly below 21% will automatically receive oxygen enrichment. The sensor-based Emerald Eco-City feedback monitor-and-control systems will send more O2 to rooms as occupancy increases, and then shut the enrichment system down to conserve oxygen when the room is empty and O2 is 21%.

    Exercise rooms may be set to a slightly-higher O2 level (like 24%) to make an intense workout more comfortable and productive for individual athletes. Trainers will monitor and document the effectiveness of various oxygen content settings of our state-of-the-art breathing-air enrichment system. Most of our ecocity workers will participate to some degree in valuable ongoing research and training programs.

    Oxygen concentration will be holistically integrated into our entire filtered fresh-air "energy recovery ventilation" (ERV) systems, which also control temperature and humidity human-comfort "enthalpy." If needed, we could heat the incoming oxygen-enriched air with sunshine, or cool it with a solar-powered "absorption chiller", etc.

    Our oxygen concentrators will create a slightly-positive air pressure in the people areas. A small amount of conditioned air may leak out, but unconditioned uncontrolled outside air will not leak in - no undesirable "infiltration."

    Simple ducts at the base of people areas can return the heavier CO2 to ceiling vents in the greenhouse areas.

    Our greenhouse plants and food preparation will produce inedible material that will be used in scientifically-controlled composting, which produces methane (which is twice as bad as a global warming greenhouse gas as CO2). We will NOT vent methane to the outside air. The methane will be used to produce electricity and heat for various internal self-contained ecocity processes. This process will produce some CO2. We will NOT vent CO2 to the outside air. It will be captured, and when (natural or artificial) light is available for greenhouse photosynthesis, we will use the CO2 that we generate to enrich our weatherized greenhouses to a tightly-controlled 550 PPM CO2 - No waste, No pollution - Every output is a valuable input in self-contained Cradle-To-Cradle Emerald Eco-City.

    Greenhouse CO2 Enrichment and People Space Oxygen Concentrator O2 Enrichment

    There will be NO possible equipment failure mode whereby CO2 could ever rise above the safe level of 600 PPM inside Emerald Eco-City people areas OR greenhouses. CO2 will most-certainly NEVER approach the 1% (10,000 PPM) level of toxicity. Even in 550 PPM of carbon dioxide, it will be safe to work, learn, and play in our "edutainment" food-growth greenhouses.

    There will be millions of continuous environmental-control sensors throughout Emerald Eco-City. When needed, the entire city can be quickly vented and flooded with filtered fresh outside air, but this should not be necessary under almost all circumstances.

    Our conditioned interior air will be much healthier for plants and people than the air in any modern metropolis or crowded building is today.

     

    The by product of an Oxygen Concentrator is concentrated Nitrogen gas ( N2 )

    The output of every process in Emerald Eco-City is designed to be a valuable input to another process within our self-contained megacity. In our Cradle-To-Cradle sustainable self-contained ecological environment, there will be NO WASTE.

    Nitrogen is an inert gas that can prevent atmospheric oxidation by displacing oxygen (but N2 is not an effective fire extinguisher, since it is lighter than air).

    Nitrogen is used to fill tires on heavy trucks and race cars. It leaks less through tire rubber than air does. It maintains more-stable pressure when temperature changes. Dry nitrogen displaces water vapor in tires. Nitrogen will be useful in some of our ecocity transportation suspension systems.

    Nitrogen can be converted by a simple process into a liquid (below -351O F). Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) has many valuable uses as a non-toxic extreme cooling agent (for for laboratory work, electrical superconductivity, MRI medical scanners, giant electromagnets for making carbon nanotubes, etc.).

    The Nitrogen from our ecocity oxygen concentrators could be compressed by a solar-powered "sterling engine" or by wind-driven compressors, and turned into valuable liquid nitrogen, etc. If we produce an excess of LN2, we can sell it profitably outside.

    Nitrogen is one of the most-important plant nutrients, which gets depleted by normal farming and has to be replaced with fertilizers containing usable nitrogen. Notice the "N" in the next-section discussion of photosynthesis below.

    Nitrogen is a primary building block of all life. It is an essential element of chlorophyll, photosynthesis, metabolic enzymes, and the amino-acid building blocks of all proteins.

    Factory farms often use "ammonium nitrate" chemical fertilizer to increase crop yields. It is usually made from large quantities of unsustainable natural gas.

    We will discuss below a superior natural "organic" way to enrich nitrogen for our greenhouse plants.

    There are also water-based liquid forms in nitrogen fertilizer for use in hydroponics systems. We can easily manufacture these ourself.

    Understanding how nitrogen gets from the atmosphere, to plants, to animals is a critical part of providing sustainable nutritious food for humans, without depleting delicate living soil.

     

    Biological Energy Cycle – The Essence of EVERYTHING

    Nothing in the entire universe can exist without energy. Understanding energy is indispensable for us to learn how to live in harmony with Nature. The more we know about the universal laws of energy, the better we can enjoy abundant life on Earth today, and in the future.

    According to modern Quantum Physics “Superstring Theory”, every Firm THING (fermion) and every FORCE of Physics (boson) is merely a common set of subatomic particles - vibrating like guitar strings at various energy-level frequencies.

     

    In 1905, Albert Einstein’s “Theory of Relativity” accurately explained that mass and energy are exactly the same interchangeable entities, just moving at different speeds relative to the speed of light (e=mc2). The primitive 1945 atomic bombs that ended World War II converted only one gram of mass (the weight of a dollar bill) into devastating energy. Humanity has yet to begin to tap the abundant free energy that surrounds us.

     

    The First Law of Thermodynamics mandates Conservation of Energy - Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy exists in many different forms (heat, mechanical, chemical, electrical, etc.). Energy can be converted from one form to another, but in all cases, the total energy in an isolated system remains constant – Energy conversion is merely a set of simple-or-complex mathematical equations that are ALWAYS IN BALANCE.

     

    No man-made machine or process has ever created or destroyed any energy, although we do have many technologies for energy conversion - Such as several ways to convert sunlight into electricity, with various different levels of cost and efficiency. In the American desert southwest, a square of land 96 miles on each side could generate as much electricity as all of USA uses every day - using existing off-the-shelf solar electricity generation technology - at a cost that is a bit LESS than building a new coal-fired power plant. There is NO rational reason to ever build another power plant that burns ANYTHING, or that generates deadly nuclear waste that will pollute the Earth for a thousand years!

     

    Essentially ALL energy on Earth comes from the Sun. Most of it comes from solar radiation (transmitted by photon bosons through about 93 million miles of the near-vacuum of outer space). Even the geothermal energy in Earth’s molten core originated from the Sun’s gravity organizing galactic dust, debris, and ice, which coalesced and evolved into our beautiful, bountiful, blue-green home.

     

    Energy from the Sun is NOT an “alternative” form of energy – It is Earth’s ONLY source of all energy. Roughly 8,000 times MORE solar radiation strikes our planet each day than the sum total of all energy used by humans from wood, coal, petroleum, gas, nuclear, etc.

     

    Solar energy is FREE, clean, safe, sustainable and abundantly available. We only need various ways to convert and store solar energy for use when and where we need it.

    ANYONE who says that humanity cannot exist without burning carbon-based fuels and nuclear energy is a fool who hasn’t a clue about the Biological Energy Cycle.

    Earth’s plants absorb and convert the equivalent of roughly 100 TERAWATTS of solar energy every day
    (the same as 1,000,000,000,000 100-watt light bulbs). That is roughly six times more than ALL of the energy currently being consumed in other forms by humans.

     

    At only $0.10 per kWh, 100 terawatts is worth about $10,000,000,000 (ten billion dollars) per day.

     

    100 terawatts is only about 0.0008 of Earth’s available solar radiation. The untapped potential is enormous.

     

    There are about 800,000 cars on Earth today for about 7 billion people. Most cars are driven far less than 100 miles per day, on average. 100 terawatts is the energy required to drive a billion electric cars about 500 miles per day, or 5 billion cars 100 miles per day. We NEVER should have developed petroleum-powered vehicles in the first place. In 1899, the world's fastest form of transportation was the electric car at 60 mph.

     

     

    Earth’s plants use “PHOTOSYNTHESIS” of 100 terawatts of solar energy to convert carbon dioxide into pure oxygen, AND to produce over 100 million tons of carbohydrate biomass per day for plant structures, chemical energy storage, and food for animals (including humans).

     

    Our Emerald Eco-City greenhouse growing season is non-stop 365. Efficient LED solid-state lighting systems can extend growing hours on winter days, with LED colors that are well-suited to different crops with specialized lighting requirements.

     

    Plants absorb light in the visible red-to-blue range that is about the same as the human eye (380 nm to 750 nm wavelength). Plant leaves appear to be green because chlorophyll REFLECTS (does not absorb) green light. Chlorophyll absorbs red (about 480 nm) and blue (about 700 nm) visible light very efficiently.

    White incandescent and fluorescent lighting systems are much-less efficient than LEDs. When artificial lighting is to be used to grow plants, there is no need to waste electricity generating green light, since chlorophyll cannot use it anyway. Red LED lights are the least expensive to manufacture. Blue LEDs are newer and somewhat more expensive. There are significant competitive development programs in place that will rapidly reduce the cost of solid-state lighting in the near future.

    Every LED light fixture can have a low-cost centrally-controlled computer chip that can precisely balance the wavelength spectrum of supplemental lighting (during the winter) to maximize crop yields. Each type of plant may have different optimal-growth lighting requirements. Our low-temperature LED light fixtures can be very-close to the plants - reducing electricity requirement and the possibility of overheating (from inefficient high-temperature incandescent lighting).

    Photosynthesis is composed of two major phases: (1) Reactions to red-and-blue electromagnetic wave radiation (Photo) that split water into hydrogen and oxygen, and (2) The Calvin Cycle (Synthesis) where hydrogen is combined with carbon dioxide to form sugars (CH2O) and eventually other forms of carbohydrate biomass.

    Photosynthesis - Sunlight Energy Conversion - Calvin Cycle

     

    After the synthesis of sugars, plants store excess chemical energy in the form of starches, complex carbohydrates, cellulose (woody plant structures), and lipids (the fats found in seeds, nuts, etc.). Nutrients taken in through the roots include: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), and the "micronutrients" boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chloride (Cl), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn). These nutrients plus the intermediate molecules produced during photosynthesis (ATP, NADPH, NADP, and ADP + P), are input to plant metabolic processes that produce essential vitamins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), and amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins that are found in our muscles, skin, organs, nerves, brain, blood cells, hair, nails, bones, enzymes, antibodies, etc.

    Humans consist of hundreds of thousands of different kinds of proteins - each one custom constructed based on complex information in our unique deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Our inherited genetic code produces a unique set of enzyme proteins that control protein synthesis, which determines things like the color of our eyes and hair. All of the characteristics of Earth's many diverse plants and animals are controlled by each species' DNA enzymes.

    There are only about 20 "essential" amino acid building blocks that are used to create large protein molecules. All amino acids contain nitrogen (N), Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). We get many of our basic amino acids (directly or indirectly) from photosynthetic plants, which are powered by the Sun.

    Life on the surface of Earth is just a set of interacting biochemical process cycles, which begin with abundant solar radiation.

     

    Earth's plants are HUGE natural collectors of free solar energy - Yet insane humans are killing 50,000-to-100,000 acres of life-giving trees every day. Our Biological Energy Cycle is now badly out of balance. At a time when human population is increasing exponentially, thoughtless non-learning humans are destroying fresh oxygen production at an alarming rate, while carbon dioxide global warming greenhouse gas is increasing at .6% per year - Well past the tipping point for serious climate change - on a suicidal path toward worldwide human suffocation.

     

    Some scientists have suggested that we need to cost-effectively imitate Nature and develop Man-Made Chlorophyll that can efficiently use sunlight to split water - Releasing pure free oxygen into the atmosphere and storing hydrogen for use whenever needed in fuel cells to produce On-Demand Electricity (from free, clean, safe, abundant sunlight). breakthrough-producing-hydrogen-water-sunlight

    cheaper-catalyst-to-make-hydrogen-fuel-from-sunlight

     

    For thousands of years, all viable human cultures had no choice but to live in harmony with Nature. For most, religion was linked to Nature, including food and energy sources. All of that began to change with 1800’s unsustainable Industrialization. Man polluted the skies with fires from burning biomass, coal, petroleum, natural gas, and recently deadly biofuels. The ONLY sustainable future solution to our current Suicidal Carbon Cycle is:

    Zero Energy Design® ZERO EMISSIONS NEVER BURN ANYTHING

    Abundant Energy In Harmony With Nature®

    Even the way we grow our food needs to significantly reduce current carbon-dioxide emissions

     

    Emerald Eco-City Designer Photosynthesis TM – Optimal Low-Light Edible Food Crop Greenhouse Growing

    Mutually-Exclusive Goals (Balance the trade-offs for the maximum net productivity):

    • Maximize 365 food production with minimum greenhouse cubic footage
    • Minimize the need for prime greenhouse south-wall exposure space
    • Maximize plant growth rate – Minimize complete cycle time seed-to-harvest
    • Minimize need for, lower total net cost, and maximize value of, artificial lighting

    Plants have adapted to grow well in full sun, partial sun, or complete shade / subdued indirect sunlight. Emerald Eco-City will select plants that grow well in our greenhouses. We will develop innovative integrated novel solutions to the above aspirational goals.

    Within one of our large six-story-tall greenhouses, there will be multiple growing zones with a variety of different environmental conditions. Next to the south window wall, plants will receive the maximum potential available direct greenhouse seasonal solar radiation. Near the north side of the greenhouse, away from the south wall, plants will only receive indirect sunlight, and in between, various seasonal light levels will be available. Higher levels near the greenhouse ceiling will have warmer tropical air temperatures. The base of the greenhouse will be moderate temperature 24 / 365. Frost will never occur.

    For the most part, we want evergreen edible (semi-tropical) plants, with the maximum annual productivity, all things considered. We can select desirable plants from the studies performed by others. We will perform continual ongoing studies of our own.

    We will experiment with development of hybrids with controlled natural cross-pollination. When we find a mixture of good and bad characteristics we will experiment with limited recombinant DNA designer genetic engineering, in very-tightly-controlled laboratories – attempting to remove undesirable characteristics and introduce more-desirable ones.

    We will have no problem finding many tasty, nutritious tropical plants that grow very-well in prime-south-wall-space direct sunlight. During the winter, we may want to supplement them with artificial light to simulate tropical daylight conditions and maximize annual productivity where the additional produce is worth more than our self-sufficient free-energy electricity-generation systems. We want to do this as cost-effectively as possible, considering the overall total cost of ownership.

    A more-challenging problem is developing food crops that grow well in less-than-direct sunlight – in some cases including total-shade indirect subdued greenhouse lighting.

    Industrial poor-nutrition factory farms want high-yield rapid-growth crops, which almost always require intense full sunlight, heavy irrigation, toxic biocides, and man-made chemical fertilization. That is NOT our Emerald Eco-City high-quality food crop goal.

    Edible plants include a small number of familiar food, and many less-familiar nutrition, flavoring sources, and herbal medicines, such as: Flowers, Fruit, Inner Bark, Leaves, Manna, Nectar, Pollen, Root (bulbs / corms / tubers / rhizomes / etc.), Sap, Seed (nuts / cereals / peas / beans), Seedpods and Stems.

    There are many food crops that grow well in full sun, but they can tolerate only partial sunlight (2-to-5 hours a day). They are however usually less productive in less sunlight (the crop may be smaller). The mathematical trade-off between the value of prime south-wall greenhouse space, versus lower crop yields, is a simple quantitative calculation. "growing-food-in-the-shade"

    Examples of some (not all) partial-sunlight food crops include: Asparagus, Blackberries, Cherry Tomatoes, Chervil, Chives, Horseradish, Peppers (some varieties), Leafy greens (bok choy, chard, kale, lettuce, spinach, …), Parsley, Raspberries, Rhubarb, Root-and-Shoot Vegetables (Sweet Potatoes, Carrots, Beets, Potatoes, Ginger, …), and Strawberries.

    Currants, Lemon balm (Melissa Officinalis), Mint, Shiso (Perilla), Oregon Grapes, …
    are happy in partial sunlight, but they may grow slowly.

    True partial sunlight plants include: Elderberry, Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), Ostrich/Fiddlehead ferns (Matteuccia struthiopteris), Ramps / Wild Leeks (Allium tricoccum), Spicebush/Appalachian Aallspice (Lindera benzoin), Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum), Wild Ginger (Asarum canadense), Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), …

    There essentially are no commonly-recognized commercial full-shade edible plants. Edible low-light plants known to exist are normally used for exotic native flavorings, herbal teas, natural holistic medicine, and some edible small fruits / leaves.

    There are some not-well-documented issues with allergic reaction potential to uncommon exotic alternative foods (as with all common foods as well).

    For example: Many people are allergic to strawberries and get a rash if they eat them. Some people develop a rash if they even touch the stems of parsnips. Potatoes become poisonous if they turn green. Eating large quantities of cabbage can adversely affect the thyroid gland. Some people are allergic to common wheat gluten found in many products. A few infants are allergic to their own mother’s milk, etc.

    The list of poorly-diagnosed food-allergy reactions is very long indeed. With less-well-known exotic alternative food, consumer caution MUST be exercised until you know for certain how you will react.

    In some cases, foods interact negatively with each other, or with prescription-or-over-the-counter drugs and food supplements. One of the worst examples is the negative interaction of grapefruit with many other common things. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/food-and-nutrition/AN00413

    In general, anecdotal evidence suggests that the overall health of most people may be improved by organic-product diet diversity. Most humans naturally seek some variation from day to day. However, preventive precautions are needed when you try anything new internally or externally. Introduce new things one-at-a-time, to help simplify cause-and-effect isolation determination. http://www.pfaf.org/user/default.aspx

    It is life-critical that you are certain to identify new plants correctly, and understand any previously-documented potential negative reactions in other people.

    When in doubt – do not even touch it.

    Before you buy new commercial products, read everything on the label. Before using any new medications, carefully examine all of the literature provided about harmful (possibly deadly) observed side effects and contraindications.

    Know what to expect if you (or your family) have an allergic reaction. Know what to do if the reaction is severe. An immediate 911 call may save your life – Do not delay.

    Only try a small taste of anything new in your diet. If there are no coincidental side effects, slowly increase the quantity at a subsequent meal - a day or so later.

    When a doctor prescribes a new medication, I ask if I may try half a dose the first day, before I take the full dose tomorrow. This is especially important for recently-released unnatural patent pharmaceuticals with limited clinical trials and historical epidemiological data about interactions with foods and other medications.

    Sometimes allergic reactions to new foods or drugs are dosage dependent, or they have cumulative metabolite-build-up issues – Beware and observant.

    When trying new soaps or skin crèmes, use them on a small area before proceeding to larger areas at least one day later. Look for any uncomfortable localized reactions or changes. Only try a second larger application if you have no reaction. Some reactions may be related to cumulative multiple applications. Remember where you applied it and pay attention to changes over time.

    There is one type of commonly-eaten food in every cookbook that requires NO LIGHT OR GREENHOUSE SPACE AT ALL TO GROW – Certain edible fungi, like tasty varieties of nitrogen-fixing amino-acid protein-source MUSHROOMS.

    The sprouting processes

    The highest nutrition value for human consumption is often just-after seeds germinate. They should NOT be cooked, which destroys their beneficial enzymes. Uncooked raw foods mandate clean, organic, production methods. Do NOT eat factory farm food covered with unhealthy biocides. They permeate food and cannot be washed off.

    Growing seeds that can be stored and sprouted 365 can be done outside during short-season full-sunlight times. Some plants (like alfalfa

    When ready to sprout large quantities of seed, the process can be a semi-automated or fully-automated, when done in a large-scale commercial operation.

    Now let’s examine the characteristics of low-light plants, in contrast with full-sun plants.

    My wife loves rare, beautiful orchids. She can immediately tell if a new plant requires moderate light or full-shade subdued indirect lighting.

    Test Your Own Botanical Powers of Observation
    Which of these orchids is living in very-low-light shady subdued indirect sun?
    Why do you think so?

    Photosynthetic Chlorophyl, low Light Orchids With Dark Green Leaves,

    The picture on the right above is a light-loving Vanda Orchid that is receiving too little light. It has darkened its leaf color to try to absorb as much radiant energy as it can. It has only put out nine leaves in five years, and only flowered twice. In brighter light, its leaves would be greener, and there would be more of them. It has the potential to grow faster, and flower more often under better light conditions, with proper nutrient care.

    There are about 35,000 orchid species and hybrids. They have adapted over many millennia to thrive in many different environmental conditions.

    Photosynthetic chlorophyll makes most earthly plant leaves appear green. That is because they ABSORB red and blue light and REFLECT intense green light from the center of the visible light spectrum.

    The color-sensing “cones” in the human retina have adapted to be sensitive to green light, which is often linked to our source of food, cooling shade, life-giving essential oxygen, natural beauty, and happy harmony with Nature’s intended Garden of Eden.

    Irrational Green-Glass Greenhouse Architecture

    Seattle Sculpture Museum “Vivaruim” - Terrible Green-Glass Greenhouse Architecture
    The unaware waterfront Seattle Sculpture Museum paid arrogant STUPID Mark Dion to design a plant-growing greenhouse in 2006 called the “Vivarium.” In the overcast low-sunlight environment, the non-learning fool used glass that BLOCKS red and blue daylight, and only allows green light in – which green plants REFLECT and have no use for! Dion’s bad greenhouse requires expensive climate control.

    The “green light” Vivarium has received international positive press coverage, which is conclusive proof that: When fools greenwash their outrageous insanity, the moronic media (that appeal to mediocre minds with no critical thinking skills) will call idiots GENIUSES. (How spectacularly funny is that?)

    The world is full of Johnny-Come-Lately would-be innovators whose intuition is just flat wrong – Doing endless double-dumb things (like a green-glass greenhouse)!

    Stay with me just a little bit longer, and you should be quite pleased

    The challenging goal of Designer Photosynthesis TM is to take plants that we know produce high yields in full-or-moderate sunlight, and “teach” them how to thrive on a lower level of tropical greenhouse or inexpensive artificial light (a goal that has eluded other horticultural research scientists, experimenters and hobbyists before).

    To accomplish this economically-valuable, seemingly “impossible” goal, we still need to know more about HOW some plants thrive in low-light levels, where other plants would die. To even a casual observer, it must have something to do with their leaves.

    You can understand a bit about your local light energy density by holding your hand 12 inches above plant leaves on a clear day. (1) If you can see no shadow, you have low-level indirect light (1,000-to-1,500 footcandles - about 30% of direct clear-day potential). This is insufficient for most orchids (except the Jewel Orchid, etc.). (2) If your hand casts a fuzzy faint shadow (roughly 3,000 footcandles), your moderate light level may be sufficient for Phalaenopsis and Paphiopedilum, which require less light than most orchids. (3) If you see a sharp shadow (5,000+ footcandles), you have enough light for all but the highest-light-requiring orchids like cymbidiums, vandas and ascocendas. (4) If the back of your hands gets hot, you probably have too much direct sunlight for orchids, (but high-yielding food crops love 8,000+ footcandles, IF they have sufficient water to keep cool by transpiration, and the correct nutrient balance to support ongoing rapid plant growth).

    For example, Phalaenopsis needs at least 2-to-3 times the light level found in a well-lit supermarket, and 5 times the level found in most artificial-lighting office environments.  

     

    Artificial Plant Growth Lighting

    Electric lighting for improved plant growth can consume a lot of energy.

    Our Designer Photosynthesis goals include finding multiple ways to reduce this energy expense, and simultaneously improve greenhouse plant yields of high-quality nutritious organic food.

    5,000-Footcandle, 54,000-Lumen, Bright Sunny Window
    The light levels for popular hobbyist orchids have been well documented. Direct sunlight entering an unshaded window can be as high as 4,000 to 8,000 footcandles measured directly at the glass (depending on latitude), while it may be as low as 500 footcandles (insufficient for conventional food crops) just off to the side of the same window.

    Lower-light plants like Paphiopedilum and Phalaenopsis can be staged in shady areas, while higher-light plants like oncidiums and cattleyas can be arranged closer to the center, and nearer the glass.

    Vertical southern glass provides the best year-round free solar radiation. Eastern window light is good in the morning, but not long enough in the winter. Northern light is diffuse, shadowless, indirect, and too weak in most northern-hemisphere locations. Western glass is undesirable without significant shading, especially in the hot summer.

    It just takes a little experimentation with plant location. So it will obviously be with large-scale Emerald Eco-City greenhouse horticulture.

    A footcandleis a measure of visible light equal to the light produced by one standard candle at a distance of one foot. A “lumenorluxis another common measure of light. One footcandle equals 10.76 lumens. Light fixtures are often rated in lumens or lux.

    Awatt measures the speed of energy conversion, which can also be described as the rate that a candle or light fixture consumes energy. One lumen equals 0.001496 watts of energy per square meter.

    Converting foot candles to watts can be done by multiplying footcandles by 10.76 to get lux, and then multiplying the result by 0.001496 to get watts.

    5,000 footcandles is 53,800 lumens, which is 80.5 energy watts per square meter.

    The energy density of typical clear-sky noon sunlight (depending on location, season, time of day, etc.) is about 1,000 to 1,400 watts per square meter. It is diminished by transmission through our atmosphere, water vapor, clouds, low angle, window glass, etc.

    At noon on a clear summer day outdoors in Middle America, 1,200 watts per meter square is roughly 800,000 lumens, or 74,000 footcandles, which rapid-growth, high-light-level food crops love. Indirect lighting in a greenhouse is no where close, especially on short winter days, when the sun is low on the horizon.

    Modern "T5HO" (high output) fluorescent grow lights are currently one of the least-expensive cost-effective artificial light sources. They use a bit more electricity than LED grow lights, but T5HO's require a much-lower capital investment than emerging LED's.

    T5HO's are available in blue-white daylight (6500 K) and red-orange (3000 K) phosphors, for different stages of plant growth (blue white being best overall for most plant growth applications). A typical 48-inch-long (4 foot) 54 watt T5HO tube produces about 5,000 lumens (92.6 lumens per watt - twice the light of older fluorescent lights). Some T5HO's are up to about 128 lumens per watt.

    T5HO's will not work with old-fashion fluorescent light fixture ballasts. The power source must match the light tube design.

    T5HO lamps have a diameter of 5/8" – Smaller means lower cost manufacturing, transportation, inventory storage, and disposal. T5HO's use 40% less glass and 30% less phosphorescent material than older fluorescent tubes. T5HO's contain 70% less mercury. The longer lamp life of T5HO's means reduced maintenance, disposal, and recycling cost.

    In the future, solid-state (LED) lighting will probably replace all fluorescent technologies, but for today, T5HO is a starting point for comparison of practical alternatives. Artificial grow light source technology will always be an important R&D effort in Emerald Eco-City.

    We will adopt, adapt, develop, demonstrate, and document state-of-the-art solutions. We will openly share what we learn with the needy world - Abundant living in harmony with Nature and with each other.

     

    Heliostats

    Heliostat Dual-Axis Tracking Solar Energy Reflectors

    Heliostats are small-or-large durable (cost effective) weather-resistant outdoor mirrors, with dual-axis sun-tracking motors. Timers or sensors are used by a simple computer system that causes the heliostat surface to reflect light from different angles on the daily-and-seasonal path of the sun in the daytime sky, to a specified target (such as a greenhouse south-facing glass wall).

    At night or during storms heliostats can move into a safe position that does not collect as much dust, or present a flat surface into the wind. During a light rain, they can be presented to the sky at an angle that helps rinse any dust off of them – low-cost automated mirror cleaning.

    Heliostats can be used to double the “lumens” entering the greenhouse south-facing vertical glass wall. They can optionally be targeted to direct sunlight on the reflective-white ceiling near the north-side of a greenhouse. This gives the net effect of overhead sunlight on plants WITHOUT ANY INEFFICIENT ROOF-ANGLED GLASS ON THE INSULATED GREENHOUSE ROOF.

    Solar concentrators (including heliostats, parabolic dishes, parabolic troughs, lenses, etc.) work best in clear-sky intense direct sunlight. They do not work well in overcast conditions where indirect daylight does not cast a distinct shadow. Diffuse light can be reflected, and it will pass through a lens, BUT, it cannot be focused or concentrated.

    Heliostats work best in areas with limited winter precipitation, and during cold winter days when the low absolute humidity makes the sky appear clear blue. They are also usually very effective in high-altitude dry-climate mountain regions.

    Heliostats are more cost effective in locations where the rainy season (if any) is in the summer, when increased solar gain is unnecessary. Heliostats are less cost effective in places where the wettest lengthy rainy season is in the winter, when maximum solar gain is desired.

    In many climates, when a cold front comes through, temperature drops below the dew point and water vapor precipitates out, leaving dry skies. For this reason, the clearest days in some locations are often the coldest winter days, when we need and receive maximum solar gain. Heliostat system design is very location dependent.

    Artificial Plant-Growth Lighting: “Wall-plug luminous efficacy” of a man-made light source is “a measure of the efficiency that it converts electricity into visible light.”

    Older obsolete light fixtures generate a lot of useless waste heat. Incandescent lights have terrible luminous efficacy:

    120 Volt 40 Watt common incandescent light bulbs are only 1.8% efficient, 100 W bulbs are 2.6% efficient – 97.4 of the energy that arrives at the wall plug is LOST! Incandescent lights generate a large amount of undesirable heat, which increases air conditioning bills in the summer. You can bake a cake or char flesh with an 1896 Thomas-Edison-style incandescent light bulb (still widely sold by GE today)!

    Pig Tail Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL) 11% Luminous Efficacy

    Compact fluorescent (pig tail) replacement light bulbs in the 9 to 32 W range have 8% to 11.45% luminous efficacy – 440% better than incandescent, and they produce less useless heat. Their eight-year capital-plus-operating cost is less than 20% of conventional incandescent light bulbs – NO BRAINER (unless you are a non-learning recalcitrant FOOL, like Rush Limbaugh who preaches AGAINST energy efficiency). NEVER EVER BUY ANOTHER INEFFICIENT INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULB AGAIN.

    Light Emitting Diode (Solid State LED) Replacement Light BulbWhite solid-state LED lights have a raw luminous efficiency of about 22%, which is 850% better than conventional GE incandescent lights and LED’s produce very-little heat. They can be designed to radiate their light in one direction (for flood lights or spot lights). They can have color controls. Innovative LED lighting system price is rapidly falling.

     

    Food Crop Lighting Requirements

    High-yield rapid-growth food crops need much-more direct sunlight than most orchids do. Computer models of our Emerald Eco-City greenhouse show contour maps of predicted footcandle energy density throughout our floor plan, every month of the year. It is merely a matter of optimizing our finite resource, and fitting our desired crops into the available space in three dimensions. We cannot raise more high-light-level food crops than the space available, without artificial lighting and/or developing plants that need less light. We will invest significant research into improving both cost-effective alternatives.

    And now, the answer to our previous Botanical Powers of Observation question: The middle picture above is a Jewel Orchid. It has two obvious low-light strategies: (1) larger leaves that gather more of the limited daylight in the shade, and (2) darker leaf color (purple black), which absorbs more (and reflects less) of the low-energy-density diffuse indirect sunlight. The Jewel is prized more by orchid lovers for its unusual foliage than for its flowers, which bloom rarely in low-light conditions. If you leave a Jewel Orchid in bright sunlight for very long, it will quickly burn up and die, because of its dark color and large light-gathering leaves.

    The picture on the right above is a light-loving Vanda Orchid that is receiving too little light. It has darkened its leaf color to try to absorb as much radiant energy as it can. It has only put out nine leaves in five years, and only flowered twice. In brighter light, its leaves would be greener, and there would be more of them. It has the potential to grow faster, and flower more often under better light conditions, with proper nutrient care.

    Two Orchids – Darker Plant One The Left Is Not Receiving Enough Light

    The orchid with the darker leaves on the left is not receiving enough light to produce flowers. In the wild, it would reproduce less prolifically, due to insufficient daylight for its species.

    The orchid with the lighter leaves on the right is receiving enough light to get ready to produce beautiful flowers. (American Orchid Society)

    If we could “teach” high-yielding food crop plants that want a high-level of light to (1) have larger light-gathering surface area, and/or have a darker color (which absorbs more radiation), then we might be on the way toward our challenging Designer Photosynthesis  goal. Nature proves it can be done. Do we understand Nature well enough yet to accomplish our challenging Designer Photosynthesis goals?

     

    What determines diverse leaf color of high-light-level and low-light plants?

    You can tell a lot about a plant’s evolved genetic Nature and current environment by looking at its leaves. This is easy to see with casual observation of sensitive orchids.

    If an orchid needs to absorb more light, it darkens its leaves. Conversely, if a plant is receiving too much light, it lightens its leaves to reflect more of the intense solar radiation. In some climates, a light/dark/light Seasonal Leaf-Color Cycle takes place. Potted plants can be moved seasonally to different daylight locations. Immobile plants can be seasonally protected with “shade screen.”

    Over multiple generations, genetic evolution (“survival of the best adapted”) will produce DNA variations that account for the diversity of plant and animal species. Plants do well in the environment that they originally evolved in. To grow them in different environments, humans are learning how to help Nature do what it already does slowly.

    Evolutionary changes take place over many thousands of years. Humans have accelerated this natural process by cross-pollinating plants that reproduce sexually. We’ve been selectively breeding animals for over 10,000 years – nothing new here. One modern difference is that the American Kennel Club is now using DNA computer analysis to document the precise genome of all types of pure-breed self-replicating dogs.

    Genetic engineers accelerate the selective cross pollination process even faster by using computer software genetic modeling (that has improved greatly over the last 40 years). After computer modeling, much less time is required in the laboratory and testing the new organism results. The iterative incremental cycle time for developing new plants is greatly reduced.

    Sorrowfully, the U.S. Patent Office now allows new life forms and even genome portions to be patented. This was illegal when the U.S. Constitution first became law. (We hope that this terrible 5-to-4 Supreme Court decision is reversed very soon, for the betterment of all mankind.)

    When the genetic engineering computer models fail to accurately predict the result, the software is incrementally improved over time. Today’s genetic engineering software has become very accurate after four decades of aggressive improvement and testing.

    Part of the Designer Photosynthesis solution may involve natural cross pollination and/or designer recombinant-DNA genetic engineering (computer models. lab work, and extensive testing). Nature shows us the proof-of-concept potential. Our curiosity and creativity will find more answers soon. Necessity is the mother (nature) of invention.

    More about the meaning of obvious leaf color: An orchid with yellow or reddish leaves needs much less daylight than it is currently receiving, or it will die soon. Sun-bleached leaves can turn totally white as chlorophyll production declines, and the photosynthesis energy required to keep the plant alive ends.

    It is ironic that too much sunshine can reduce photosynthesis and shorten plant life this way. One of the impacts of worldwide climate change involves increased evaporation / cloud cover, and man-made anthropomorphic alterations to delicate plant growth environments, in some sensitive geographical areas.

    Sunburned necrotic (dead) leaf tissue often turns black - causing spots, entire leaf death, and eventually premature (avoidable) plant death. Careful observation with appropriate mitigation and remediation can avoid unnecessary undesirable plant loss.

    The name “chlorophyll” is derived from the two Greek words for "green" and "leaf".  (Chlorophyll does not contain any chlorine, as its name might imply to some.)

    There are four naturally-occurring molecular forms of chlorophyll: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll c1, Chlorophyll c2, Chlorophyll d, and Chlorophyll f. Light-green Chlorophyll a is the most abundant on Earth, followed by darker-green Chlorophyll b.

    Young, tender, new-growth plant leaves are often a very-light shade of yellow-green, which reflects much of the direct sunlight that strikes them. As leaves mature and become stronger, they generate more Chlorophyll (a and b), which absorb more sunlight and makes the older leaves appear to be darker green than the newest light-green leaves on the same plant.

    New Growth New Leaves Have Less Chlorophyll B – Old Growth Leaves Have More
    New Leaves Rise Above Old Growth To Catch Sunlight
    Old Leaves Like Low Light – They Survived The Winter

    When new light-green leaves mature and become stronger and more productive, they normally replace old dark-green leaves in Nature’s continual cycles of life. Eventually, young new plants replace old plants, by various means of propagation.

     

    The Evolution Of Life-Critical Chlorophyll On Earth

    The Earth is estimated to be about 4.5 billion yeas old. 4.2 years ago Earth cooled enough to allow water in the liquid state, and simple single-cell life (“prokaryotes”) emerged. About 3 billion years ago, chlorophyll facilitated photosynthesis, and the production of atmospheric free oxygen, which eventually enabled the evolution of Earth’s air-breathing animals. Chlorophyll had to exist on Earth long before the first animals.

    Few things are more important to life on Earth than chlorophyll – hence our instinctive love of many things that are green. It is the color that our eyes have evolved to be the most sensitive to (We perceive white light as 67% green, 30% red, and 3% blue.) On our way to the Moon, we looked in the rear-view mirror and for the first time saw the unique beauty of our cloud-covered blue-green spherical home. Earth ceased to be flat and fixed on its foundation, as our ancestors had once incorrectly believed.

     

    How Does Chlorophyll Do What It Does?

    All forms of chlorophyll have at their center (chlorin ring) one metal magnesium atom ion that is bonded to four surrounding nitrogen atoms, which are in turn bonded to various arrangements of organic carbon, hydrogen and oxygen:

    “Chlorophyll a” Molecular Structure: Magnesium, Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

    Video clip explanation of photosynthesis bioelectrochemistry

    Obviously, if there is a deficiency of the magnesium mineral in soil, nitrogen (from NH4 ammonium or NO3 nitrates), CO2 carbon dioxide, or H2O water, then plants cannot generate the chlorophyll that is essential to their life - They bleach out and die.

    Adding nitrogen-rich fertilizer (such as NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate) to your lawn generates more chlorophyll, and turns your grass greener, BUT, your grass will burn up if you do not then water it heavily, which pollutes runoff water, lakes, ponds, and aquifers with excess unhealthy nitrates – exceeding the limit set by the U.S. EPA.

    Multiple-natural-nutrient compost is helpful in shaded areas to encourage water retention, chlorophyll production, and thus carbohydrate plant growth, but high-nitrogen fertilizer and heavy watering creates drought-intolerant plants with shallow roots that easily dry up and die. (See our discussion of The Nitrogen Cycle)

    Photosynthesis is not involved in seed germination. Nuts and seeds contain stored energy that is sufficient to begin their life in total darkness, under the surface of the soil. Sprouts are often very-high in the healthy nutrition that humans need. (This is conceptually similar to the high-quality nutrition found in eggs.)

    When mung beans (“bean sprouts”) used in Asian dishes) germinate, they create a familiar shoot that is completely white – with no chlorophyll or photosynthesis, until the shoot breaks through the surface of the soil, into the sunlight, where it is then genetically programmed to produce its own chlorophyll, and mature into a reproductive green-colored mung bean plant.

    When plant leaves age, “degreen”, and die (as in the Fall, at the end of their genetically-programmed evergreen-or-deciduous life cycle, or when they die prematurely due to a deficiency), the chlorophyll that was in the green leaves loses its magnesium bonds, and breaks down into colorless “tetrapyrroles” that do not support photosynthesis. The elements found in chlorophyll are normally not green, unless they are functional as a whole “healthy” molecule.

    Without green chlorophyll, we see the beautiful autumn colors of the various pigments remaining in each species of dying leaves in a colorful forest in the Fall. Some plants’ new-growth leaves may appear yellow-orange for a few days, until the plant produces new chlorophyll, which causes them to turn beautiful green.

    Nature’s vibrant display of fall colors is attractive to humans because we mentally associate autumn leaves with an abundant food harvest of many types of plants that are common on our traditional Thanksgiving table.

    Chlorophyll degreening is a time to celebrate with family and friends, and store bountiful organic food for a cozy snowy winter. Tetrapyrroles are cheery. (smile) Autumn leaves and winter snow predict the Green Spring endless circle of renewal and ongoing life.

    Spectral Analysis Of Chlorophyll a Versus Chlorophyll b – Wavelength in Nanometers

    This graph shows why Chlorophyll a is a blue-green plant pigment, and Chlorophyll b is a yellow-green pigment. Chlorophyll a absorbs visible light efficiently at wavelengths of about 400-450 nanometers (nm) and at 650-700 nm. Chlorophyll b is an efficient energy absorber at 450-500 nm and at 600-650 nm. Both b and a reflect 500-to-600 nm visible light, which makes photosynthetic plant leaves and phytoplankton (that contain chlorophyll) appear to be green.

    Note that Chlorophyll a has peak efficiency in the blue and red range. In contrast, Chlorophyll b has peak efficiency in the sky-blue cyan and yellow-orange range. You can see from the graph that Chlorophyll a does NOT take advantage of cyan or yellow light (which could cause the plant to overheat and die in the intense summer sunlight).

    Neither Chlorophyll a nor Chlorophyll b take advantage of infrared (right-side IR) thermal radiant energy (heat). Photosynthesis works well in evergreen plants that have adapted to cold / snowy environments (like mountain conifers) – Infrared heat is not required. High-altitude evergreen pine trees have thin needle-like leaves, which provide adequate photosynthesis. Pine needles resist burning up in the intense summer sunlight, water loss, and freezing in the winter. Conifers can quickly shed excess needles when solar energy density increases in the summer.

    "Chlorophyll a" uses intense ultraviolet (left-side UV) light better than does "Chlorophyll b"

    "Chlorophyll a" is more effective in outdoor intense direct sunlight

    “Chlorophyll b” is more effective in low-light shady indirect / diffuse sunlight
    Plants that do well in low-light conditions produce more Chlorophyll b

    Evergreen plants produce more Chlorophyll b when winter sun is less intense

    There is insufficient sunlight in the winter for deciduous plants, and leaves die

    "Chlorophyll b" is also more effective in the conditions found in a greenhouse,
    where there is very-little ultraviolet light, and visible light is less intense

    Window glass blocks most ultraviolet light – You won’t get sunburned in a greenhouse

     

    Phytoplankton, algae and cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll in a symbiotic relationship. These green plant / animals normally live near the sunny surface of small-and-large bodies of water. They add green shading to the characteristic blue color of pure water.

    When there are more light-absorbing organisms containing chlorophyll, water appears to be greener, hence the different shades of blue-green water under different conditions, in different locations – Don’t drink green water.

    Since many green microorganisms in some sources of water are quite harmful to humans, humans have evolved to naturally prefer to drink clear-blue water. The color-sensitive “cones” in our retina and our optical cortex image analysis intelligence can instantly tell the difference between blue and unhealthy green water. Our taste buds recognize the difference between salt water and fresh - Vision and taste obviously help keep observant humans healthier.

    There are some chlorophyll-containing photosynthesis foods that are very healthy for humans. “ Kelp ” (sea weed) is one abundant high-protein example that is popular in Asian foods (like sushi, etc.). 100 grams of kelp typically contains 1.3 grams of fiber, 1.7 grams of protein, 9.6 grams of carbohydrates, .6 grams of essential fats, and .6 grams of sugars. Depending on growing conditions, kelp may contain from 3% to 45% of the minimum requirements of 13 vitamins and minerals. Kelp has over 70 minerals, growth hormones, trace elements, enzymes, vitamins, including potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and especially iodine.

    Other potential green human food sources that grow in water include some varieties of properly-processed algae, duckweed, etc. Green water may contain unhealthy microorganisms, but some green things from fresh-and-salt water are quite beneficial. Humans may find ourselves dependent on such foods, when we completely deplete all seafood, etc.

    In the last 50 years, 90% of all large fishes have disappeared from Earth’s overfished oceans. CNN Disappearing Fish

    One major health issue with things that grow in water is man-made pollution of Earth’s delicate fresh-and-salt waters, and everything in them. Our remaining seafood sources are for the most part BADLY CONTAMINATED by the evil hand of thoughtless man.

    Emerald Eco-City will research novel health-food possibilities, in our controlled self-sustaining aquaponics greenhouse advanced-technology growing environment.

     

    Summary of Emerald Eco-City Designer Photosynthesis TM

    Most high-yield rapid-growth food plants prefer high-light intense summer sunshine.
    This significantly limits the growing season in most of Middle-and-Northern America.

    Traditional greenhouses extend the growing season, but they provide lower-light less-productive growing conditions than does outdoor direct summer sunlight.

    Our Emerald Eco-City Designer Photosynthesis goal is to maximize indoor greenhouse year-round 365 food production with minimum greenhouse cubic footage. We want to minimize the need for scarce premium greenhouse south-wall exposure space.

    Our desire is to lower the total net cost, and maximize the value of, artificial lighting.

    To accomplish these challenging goals (all things considered) we plan to:

     

    Future Emerald Eco-City “Quantum Jump” Research and Development

    There is one important thing that is common to Photosynthesis and to Photovoltaics:
    Both involve photonic electromagnetic wave radiation striking a metallic ion,
    which causes electrons to jump to higher electron-energy-level quantum states

    In the case of Photosynthesis, this energy produces sugars and pure oxygen

    In the case of Photovoltaics, radiation motivates electron flow, i.e. Electricity Electromotive Force (EMF)

    Photosynthesis or Organic Photovoltaic discoveries and innovations will help the other

    This potential possibilities are extremely motivating for Emerald Eco-City R&D

    Quantized Electron Energy Level Shells

    Hydrogen is the simplest atomic element. H has only one electron, with only one shell energy level.
    Heavier atomic elements with more electrons may have many quantum-jump energy levels.

    Quantized Electron Energy  Shells for Highly-Conductive Copper

    Highly-conductive, commonly-used copper electrical wiring has 29 balanced protons and electrons, and 35 neutrons. “Cu” electrons are arranged in four quantized energy level orbital shells: First Energy Level “K” has 2 electrons, Second Energy Level “L” has 8, Third Energy Level “M” has 18, and Cu’s Fourth Energy Level “N” has only 1 electron in its outer-most orbital shell. 

    High-speed electrons have inertia kinetic energy of motion. Electrons only orbit in the shells that are appropriate for the atomic element that they are part of. Electrons do not orbit randomly between shells. Electrons only change energy-level orbital shells when energy enters or leaves the atom (typically by photonic electromagnetic wave radiation, or chemical energy processes).

    The basic forces (bosons) in Physics are (1) Electromagnetic Waves (Photons), (2) Gravity (Gravitons), (3) Strong Nuclear Force (Fermion Glue that holds firm things together), and (4) Weak Nuclear Force ( W and Z Bosons - radioactive material decay).

    Modern Quantum Physics subatomic “Superstring Theory” suggests that all boson forces, AND all fermion firm things are actually the same particles when viewed from the perspective of subatomic Quantum Physics. The only difference between bosons and fermions is that they are vibrating at different frequencies, like the strings of a guitar, harp, or piano.

    In 1905, Albert Einstein’s e = mc2Theory of Relativity made it clear that the only difference between mass and energy is speed – Mass can be transformed into pure energy (as in nuclear power plants and atomic bombs). Conversely, energy can be turned into mass (as in the Theoretical “Big Bang” creation of the entire universe with over a hundred billion galaxies). The still-valid 1850 First Law Of Thermodynamics mandates "Conservation Of Energy" - Energy can be transformed into various forms (e.g. sunlight into electricity), but Energy Cannot Be Created Nor Destroyed. The total energy in the entire universe has apparently remained the same since the Big Bang beginning of Space and Time (as far as our current best man-made instrumentation can measure).

    Photonic Electromagnetism is the mechanism of a wide range of Physics phenomena, including: magnetic fields (compass, electricity generators and motors), radio waves (wireless communication), microwave ovens (fast / efficient cooking), radar (FAA airplane control and guidance systems), infrared (radiant heat), the red/green/blue spectrum of visible light, ultraviolet (sunburn), Hazardous X-Rays, and Mutagenic Cancer-Causing Gamma Rays or Cosmic Rays from outer space.

    They are ALL photons vibrating at different frequencies, wavelength, and different electromagnetic energy levels

    Photonic Electromagnetic Wavelength In Meters, and Approximate Wave Sizes

    Photinic Electromagnetic Wavelength and Wave Sizesac
    http://skyserver.sdss.org/dr1/en/proj/advanced/color/whatis.asp

    Photonic electromagnetic wave radiation interacts with electrons. Resonant frequencies are important. Different atomic elements absorb and emit different nanometer wavelengths (spectral analysis). This is how we can analyze the elements in distant planets and stars. Doppler shift spectral analysis allows us to measure the speed of distant galaxies, either toward or away from us.

    The above electromagnetic phenomena can be transformed back-and-forth from one form to another. For example, a magnetic field can induce electron flow (electromagnetic force – EMF) into a copper wire (by moving the wire through the field or by moving the magnet past the wire). A coil of copper wire does this more effectively than a single wire. Fluorescent materials (like phosphors, etc.) can change one color of light to another.

     

    Generating Electricity By Multiple Means

    The vast majority of the world’s electricity is generated this way from (a) moving water that turns a generator, to (b) wind turbines, (c) geothermal steam, and (d) the very-environment-damaging burning of fuels to make steam, which turns generator turbines.

    The process of converting magnetism into electricity can easily be reversed – Electricity is instantly converted by copper coils into magnetic fields, which then turn pervasive electric motors around the world. Electric motors are MANY times more energy efficient than internal combustion engines that burn dirty fuels and badly damage our environment. One critical design goal is to minimize energy losses due to ineffective obsolete technologies for converting one form of energy to another.

    BURNING ANYTHING IS PARTICULARLY ENERGY INEFFICIENT, and ENVIRONMENT DAMAGING

     

    Generating Light From Electricity

    Light fixtures convert electricity to light. Thomas Edison’s GE incandescent light bulbs are extremely inefficient heat generators. Modern solid state LED’s are much more energy efficient, and they are becoming more cost effective every year, as technology improves and production volumes economies of scale steadily increase.

    Photovoltaics reverse the electricity-to-light energy transformation process and use light to produce electricity. Typical high-volume PV’s are now about 14% efficient. Superior laboratory PV’s have demonstrated proof-of-concept 42% efficiency at directly converting sunshine into electricity.

     

    Some of our Basic Photonic and Electronic Innovation Goals

    Our near-term worldwide goal is to significantly lower the manufacturing cost of more-efficient PV’s, with minimal surface area yielding maximum electricity output.

    Photosynthesis converts light into glucose, carbohydrates, and amino acid proteins, which are forms of stored chemical energy. To maximize year-round greenhouse food production, Emerald Eco-City wants to develop photosynthetic plants that are more-efficient at absorbing lower levels of full-spectrum visible light. Such highly-absorbent plant leaves would appear to be black – They would not reflect green.

    All of the above involve photons interacting with electron energy level quantum jump shells.

    Chemical electrical storage batteries convert chemical energy into electricity. Rechargeable storage batteries reverse this process and convert electricity into stored chemical energy for later use.

    Ionization Energy is a high-school “Introduction To Chemistry” concept that represents the energy required (in electron volts – eV) to remove an outer-shell electron to create a positive ion (leaving more protons than electrons - ionic imbalance). Smaller eV numbers mean that the atom (or molecule) ionizes better at lower energy levels (which is a portion of our Designer Photosynthesis research goals). Here is a partial list of common ionization eV’s:

    Atomic
    Number

    Atomic
    Weight

    Chemical
    Name

    Chemical
    Symbol

    Ionization
    Energy (eV)

    11

    22.99

    Sodium

    Na

    5.1391

    3

    6.941

    Lithium

    Li

    5.3917

    13

    26.98

    Aluminum

    Al

    5.9858

    20

    40.08

    Calcium

    Ca

    6.1132

    24

    51.99

    Chromium

    Cr

    6.7665

    22

    47.87

    Titanium

    Ti

    6.8281

    50

    118.71

    Tin

    Sn

    7.3439

    82

    207.2

    Lead

    Pb

    7.4167

    25

    54.938

    Manganese

    Mn

    7.434

    47

    107.89

    Silver

    Ag

    7.5762

    28

    58.693

    Nickel

    Ni

    7.6398

    12

    24.305

    Magnesium

    Mg

    7.6462

    29

    63.546

    Copper

    Cu

    7.7264

    26

    55.845

    Iron

    Fe

    7.9024

    14

    28.086

    Silicon

    Si

    8.1517

    5

    10.811

    Boron

    B

    8.298

    78

    195.08

    Platinum

    Pt

    8.9587

    48

    112.41

    Cadmium

    Cd

    8.9938

    79

    196.96

    Gold

    Au

    9.2255

    30

    65.39

    Zinc

    Zn

    9.3942

    16

    32.07

    Sulfur

    S

    10.36

    80

    200.6

    Mercury

    Hg

    10.4375

    53

    126.9

    Iodine

    I

    10.4513

    15

    30.97

    Phosphorus

    P

    10.4867

    6

    12.01

    Carbon

    C

    11.2603

    35

    79.90

    Bromine

    Br

    11.8138

    54

    131.29

    Xenon

    Xe

    12.1298

    17

    35.45

    Chlorine

    Cl

    12.9676

     

    Magnesium-Based Photosynthesis

    For some reason, Nature chose magnesium to be at the core of Chlorophyll. Why not Sodium, Lithium, Aluminum, Calcium, Manganese, Silver, etc.?

    Magnesium makes up 2% of the Earth’s crust. Did Nature experiment with other positive metal ions and then decide that magnesium was best on Earth, all things considered? Are there plants on other planets that have leaves that are a color other than green? Was Chlorophyll part of an intelligent design that sprang to life fully-formed in an instant? Why does Nature now produce six different molecular structures of natural Chlorophyll?

    Chlorophyll evolved in intense direct sunlight. Self-replicating plants now cover the Earth with magnesium-based green photosynthetic Chlorophyll. Are there better molecular structures (with or without magnesium) that might function better than natural Chlorophyll - in the low-light conditions of a man-made year-round aquaponics greenhouse? Can we “teach” self-replicating plants to generate a new form of low-light Chlorophyll?

     

    Rechargeable Battery Metals

    In the 1890’s, electric cars popularized the use of lead-acid rechargeable batteries. Thomas Edison worked on lead-acid battery improvement for the 1,000 Endurance Race. By 1900, 60 mph electric cars were the fastest form of human transportation. (Henry Ford’s 1908-1928 smelly, hard-to-start, inefficient, gasoline-engine Model T car only went a maximum of 40-45 mph).

    Over 120 years after their widespread introduction, heavy lead-acid batteries are now in roughly 800 million cars worldwide, plus millions of other things. Lead-acid batteries are a very-obsolete environment-polluting technology, but they are still widely used in our non-learning resistant-to-change status-quo world. Why?

    Lithium batteries store more energy and are much smaller and lighter than most previous rechargeable battery technologies. The Ionization Energy of Lithium is only 5.3917 eV, which is only 73% of the 7.4167 eV required for old-fashion Lead. A variety of lithium-based technology batteries are now in everything from our pervasive smart phones to a growing number of leading-edge, commercially-available, zero-pollution, domestic energy, all-electric cars.

    Is it possible that lithium will play a role in future enhanced Photosynthesis or superior Photovoltaic direct local electricity generation, or energy storage systems?

    Are even-better materials waiting for motivated research scientists to learn how to use?

    Zero Energy Design® Emerald Eco-City tm optimistically thinks so. Do you? Necessity is the mother of invention.

     

    Specific Goals and Our Detailed R&D Vision

    A well-stated common understanding of an existing problem, and a detailed visionary goal for an unprecedented superior solution, IS HALF OF THE SOLUTION.

    The following is a brief overview of two related research efforts. (1) Chlorophyll Black, and (2) Self-Replicating Organic Biological Photovoltaics.

    Both of our Chlorophyll Black and Biological Photovoltaic research projects offer 1 + 1 = 3, mutually-supportive reinforcing development synergy. Investment in one is likely to benefit the other – We are inspired and excited.

    Emerald Eco-City economy of scale (for a million people) can provide R&D funding for things that non-learning corporations and politicians have ignored for over a century.

    Spin-offs of our research may be cost-effectively synergistic with many rapidly-emerging advanced-technologies, such as, Artificial Photosynthesis, Photoelectrochemical Cells, Photocatalytic Water Splitting (24-hour on-demand energy), Photohydrogen, Photoelectrolysis, Photocatalysis, Photoelectrochemistry, Electrochemiluminescence (self-reproducing super-efficient electrical lighting systems), rechargeable energy-storage batteries, and other energy-related fields, including room-temperature Superconductivity, resistance to corrosion, how plants store chemical energy, novel super foods, improvement of Solar Thermal Collectors energy absorption, reduced undesirable radiant heat transfer / insulation innovation / building materials, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotechnology, DNA Nanotechnology, Molecular Self-Assembly, Protein Folding, Molecular Design Software, etc.

    The goals of Emerald Eco-City are not unique; many R&D agencies are already making important progress toward similar objectives. However, we do hope to integrate the work of the world’s best-and-brightest creative thinkers and practical technologies into a cohesive pragmatic working demonstration of what intelligent human society has the potential to become, in sustainable prosperous harmony with Nature.

    Both of our Chlorophyll and Photovoltaic leading-edge R&D projects involve: (a) Discovery and demonstration of new solutions in the laboratory (at potentially high cost), followed by (b) “Teaching” (genetically engineering) or inventing self-replicating living organisms how to cost-effectively “grow” the new solutions in very-high pragmatic production volumes – that may greatly benefit the entire Earth.

    What better way to invest your life than solving such challenging problems to save our precious Earth,
    and the people living on it, in happy harmony with Nature?

    We hope that our early Zero Energy Design® Emerald Eco-City tm R&D successes will inspire millions,
    and motivate international collaboration with our peers and the many interns who study with us.

    We will publish our Designer Photosynthesis and Quantum Jump results and conclusions, for the betterment of all mankind.

     

    Chlorophyll Black

    Natural Chlorophyll for the most part appears to be green – It absorbs read-and-blue light and reflects green – for very good reason. If Chlorophyll also absorbed green light, almost-black plant leaves in the bright direct summer sun would become far too hot. Black leaves would try to cool down through “transpiration” (evaporation) by drawing a large volume of water through their roots. During the hot dry summer, they would need much-larger root structures and never-ending irrigation, just to keep from burning up.

    Nature wisely “selected” Green Chlorophyll for very-good scientific reasons, and green photosynthesis has covered the Earth in a wide-biodiversity of life-giving green plants. We see no need to try to improve on natural Green Chlorophyll for direct-sunshine OUTDOOR plants.

    Natural Green Chlorophyll is obviously wonderful in bright direct sunlight, BUT things that reflect green are less efficient in shady indirect low-lux lighting conditions. Only a few low-light plants (like the Jewel Orchid, et.al.) have developed nearly-black leaves in order to survive. BUT, Jewel Orchids have two basic limitations: (1) They grow very slowly, and (2) They do not produce food.

    Humans need to develop multiple innovative ways to raise plants for food, in year-round low-light greenhouses.

    As petroleum availability predictably declines to the point where we can no-longer afford to burn it to transport food, humanity will soon have no choice but to grow our own food LOCALLY (instead of over 1500 miles away). We will have to exploit year-round greenhouses to meet our continual local demand for nutritious food.

    Greenhouses have the limitation of lower annual light levels, than plants have in direct outdoor summer sunshine. We need food crops that have much darker, more-absorbent leaves that grow healthy productive plants as quickly as possible in reduced lighting, (or cost-effective man-made artificial lighting).

    Such plants will probably have highly-absorbent, non-reflective leaves that appear to be black.

    Our obvious name for their more-efficient proposed photosynthesis mechanism is “Chlorophyll Black” (or Black Chlorophyll).

    Chlorophyll Black may be a single new molecular structure, similar to Chlorophyll b, but also able to absorb Green light very efficiently.

    Alternatively, we may develop a form of photosynthetic Chlorophyll that only absorbs green light well, and then use it in combination with Chlorophyll b to achieve the Chlorophyll Black net all-visible-light absorption spectrum.

    A photosynthetic molecule that only absorbs Green light, and reflects Red-and-Blue light would appear to be “Magenta” (Red + Blue wavelength light). We could call this hypothetical Green-light-absorbing photosynthetic molecule Chlorophyll Magenta.”

    Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Cyan, Blue, Indigo and Violet are each a Single Wavelength of Light - in the natural rainbow color spectrum. Magenta Is NOT.

    Visible Light Rainbow Spectrum and RGB Color Theory Wheel

    The RGB Wheel of Human Color Perception (on the right above) is a continuous circle that mixes Red, Green, and Blue light in our eyes.
    In contrast, the rainbow spectrum is linear
    – Red light has a much longer wavelength than does Blue. Magenta is Red + Blue light.

    Magenta is a mental-artifact color produced in our optical cortex visual imagination when the Red-and-Blue “cones” in our RGB retina are stimulated simultaneously, but our Green cones are not. Our RGB color televisions and computer displays can NOT generate True Violet, but RGB displays can fool our visual perception by generating (Red + Blue) Magenta, which we incorrectly perceived as Violet (or Purple). In the above Visible Light Spectrum graphic, we SIMULATE Violet (which your RGB display screen cannot produce) with (Red + Blue) Magenta.

    Your eye is fooled into thinking that (Red + Blue) Magenta is Violet.

    Natural Rainbows do not contain (Red + Blue) Magenta - True Violet is very faint

    Rainbow colors are the result of White Sunlight (from behind the viewer) Color-Splitting Refraction through small
    water droplet mist (or ice crystals). In the upper left of the photo below, you see the predictable faint natural Double Rainbow effect.

    Rainbows are formed at two different view angles: Primary Rainbow view angle is always 42 degrees from the sun behind the viewer. Secondary rainbow view angle is always 50 degrees - Fainter, larger, above-and-outside of the primary rainbow - with colors reversed.

    Every viewer sees a different (but often similar) rainbow. It is optically impossible to touch a rainbow, due to the precise angles involved. It is guaranteed that you will NEVER reach the Irish fairy myth about a magical "pot of gold at the end of the rainbow." We can be scientifically certain that the refractory Physics necessary for rainbows existed BEFORE the story of Noah's Flood.

    Rainbows are not Fermions (firm things). Rainbows are a visual image of electromagnetic wave energy Bosons (Physics forces). Rainbows only exist in the persistent optical cortex imaginary memories of how we once perceived their transient beauty.

    The curved shape of all natural rainbows is the result of the required 42-and-50 degree angles from the viewer. You often see only part of an arc. Looking down from an airplane, rainbow-like phenomena appear to be complete circles called a Halo, Gloriole (Glory), or ice-crystal Diamond Dust.

    Each rainbow color is a single-wavelength electromagnetic energy frequency

    Natural Rainbow

    Some people with no “color theory” training confuse Natural Rainbow True Violet with (Red + Blue) Magenta.

    Red and Blue are actually two very-different wavelengths of visible light.

    Visible Violet (400 nm) is close to invisible Ultraviolet (sunburn) electromagnetic wave radiation
    (which is intense high-frequency short-wavelength energy with a wide-range below 380 nm).

    Indigo is 445 nm, which is next to Deep-Blue (475nm). In contrast, Magenta is long-wave
    lower-frequency Red light (about 650 nm) PLUS shorter-wavelength Blue light (at 475 nm).

    Magenta does NOT have just one frequency / wavelength – Magenta is two different wavelengths.

    Orange light is 590 nm. Yellow is 570 nm. Green is 570 nm. Cyan is about 492 nm. Chlorophyll a reflects roughly 480 through 600 nm – making photosynthetic plants look Green. All visible colors in a natural rainbow have a single wavelength, EXCEPT Magenta, which is a mixture of primary Red + Blue light, and NOT in a natural rainbow.

    Red, Green, and Blue are “primary colors” to our retina "cones." The human perception of Yellow, Cyan, or Magenta is the result of “integrator neurons” that are each connected to TWO primary-color retina picture element (pixel) light-sensing cones.

    The difference between Pink and Dark Red is “luminosity” (the intensity or brightness of light). On a computer display, 100% Red can be made to appear Dark Red by lowering the luminosity below 100%. To make 100% Red appear pink, a bit of Green and Blue light increases the total perceived luminosity above 100%.

    100% Red, plus 100% Green, plus 100% Blue appears to be Bright White to the human eye. Black is Zero Red, Zero Green, and Zero Blue light.

    Humans incorrectly perceive Magenta as though it is a single color, when it is actually two very-different colors falling on our eyes at the same time, on the same pixel cones.

    Green is White light minus Red and Blue light. Magenta is White light minus the Green.

    Green Light PLUS (Red + Blue) Magenta Light Is 100% Green + 100% Red + 100% Blue = White Light with Zero Energy Absorption.

    Red and Blue (Magenta) absorption (by Natural Chlorophyll), added to Green absorption (by Chlorophyll Magenta) yields Black. Zero Red, Zero Blue, and Zero Green reflected = Total Visible Light Absorption = Black Leaves = The Goal of Chlorophyll Black.

    Natural Green Chlorophyll b PLUS imaginary proposed man-made Chlorophyll Magenta should absorb all visible RGB White light, and appear to be Black to the human eye. Natural Chlorophyll appears green. IF we discover Chlorophyll Magenta in a laboratory, it will appear Magenta to the naked eye. This is a clearly-visible signal that our research is on the correct track.

    If we mix natural Green Chlorophyll with man-made Chlorophyll Magenta, it should appear Black.

    Total Light Absorption = Chlorophyll Black, which is the highest-possible most-efficient use of the entire visible electromagnetic wavelength energy spectrum.

    There is no need for hypothetical Chlorophyll Black to absorb Ultraviolet light (since there is very-little UV inside a glass-enclosed greenhouse, AND artificial UV light is expensive to generate).

    It would however be an added benefit IF Chlorophyll Black absorbed some Invisible Infrared - thermal radiant heat – which is longer-wavelength electromagnetic energy carried by photons from a warmer radiant heat source to a cooler object. How might we develop innovative greenhouse plants that absorb at-least some infrared heat energy to improve the generation of nutritious healthy food?

     

    300 Known Earthly Life Forms Are Based On Non-Photosynthetic “Chemosynthesis” - Nature PROVES It Is Possible

    Since 1977, ocean geochemists have known that unique giant tube worms perform “chemosynthesis” in total darkness (8,000 feet deep) around volcanic thermal vent (smokers) on the ocean floor. Over 300 unusual species are now known to thrive in these harsh un-illuminated hot conditions. Chemosynthetic bacteria living in tube worm tissues provide nourishment for animal growth. Hemoglobin transports hydrogen sulfide to the bacteria, which makes these thermal-vent giant tube worms appear to be Red, when they are illuminated with artificial white light (from a deep-sea submarine).

    We now have proof positive that Green Chlorophyll is NOT the only basis for life on Earth. We therefore KNOW that other alternative life-energy-synthesis mechanisms are possible. Nature has provided us with inspirational proof-of-concept, which we have only recently discovered - as humans begin the exploration of largely-unknown planet Earth, and how to live sustainably in harmony with Nature.

    We may theoretically be able to develop new chemosynthesis biotechnology that will absorb greenhouse infrared radiant heat and produce carbohydrates and proteins for food, OR energy that can be used to generate (and store) multiple-purpose electricity.

    We know for certain that Photosynthesis and Photovoltaics can do this directly from light at room temperature - Can we do something similar with low-level greenhouse heat, flat solar panels, or solar concentrators, (like mirrors or lenses)? We are very inspired to try.

    Heat-absorbing, food-and-electricity-producing “ Endothermic" systems might even help keep Emerald Eco-City cool in the summer.

     

    Healthy versus Unhealthy Plant Pigments

    Nature has provided us with valuable visible clues to guide educated eyes in selecting better-nutrition organic health food.

    In general, "white is weak, but dark is dandy" (there are exceptions).

    For example, we know for scientific certainty that dark-pigmented (red, magenta / purple, blue and black) grapes have high values of important "antioxidants", which (1) slow down the natural oxidative aging process, (2) protect delicate cells against environmental pollution, (3) help reduce the DNA mutations that lead to deadly cancer, (4) mitigate the risk of diabetes complications, and (5) strengthen vascular walls, which reduces the risk of: (a) varicose veins, (b) heart attacks, (c) brain strokes, and (d) neuropathy (nerve death) from Alzheimers-like diseases of the brain, to the micro capillaries in our internal organs, eyes, fingertips and toes.

    European Medical Doctors have prescribed Grape Seed Extract (made from dark grape skins and seeds) and Bilberry Extract (made from dark magenta / purple blueberries) for for half a century for a wide variety of scientifically-proven disease prevention, reduction, mitigation, and disease-treatment reasons. These dark-fruit extracts can be 50 times more powerful as an antioxidant than healthy doses of vitamin C. Grape Seed Extract adheres to connective tissue and protects it from damage (which is what blood vessels are made of). Without sufficient antioxidants, damaged blood vessels build up protective cholesterol plaques, which eventually block blood flow, cause neuropathy, blindness, brain strokes and the number one killer: heart disease.

    DARK PIGMENTS ARE PRECIOUS ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF GOOD HEALTH and JOYFUL LONG LIFE

    In contrast to dark grapes, green grapes (grown to eat or use in unhealthy white wines) are very-low in beneficial antioxidants. They are merely high-glycemic-index empty calories that increase the risk of obesity and diabetes. Fermentation of bad sugars with low antioxidants makes even-worse popular intoxicating products.

    Dark pigment is the first clue about what you should do

    Laboratory tests can easily show that vine-ripened red bell peppers have much more healthy antioxidants than less-nutritious green bell peppers of the same size.

    "Listen" to what your eyes are trying to tell you about healthy dark pigments.

    Vine-ripened local fresh red tomatoes are much better for you than fried green tomatoes, or tomatoes ripened with gaseous chemicals while being transported in an 18-wheel truck, wasting a lot of expensive, polluting imported diesel fuel.

     

    High Glycemic Index Deadly Empty Calories

    Consumption of highly-refined white carbohydrates (like common sugar and flour) should be minimized by most overweight people. They are high-glycemic index, empty detrimental calories that increase the risk of type II diabetes. High-glycemic-index food can contribute to clogged arteries, heart disease, and brain strokes. Excess blood sugar aggravates the pain, suffering, and diseases related to inflammation.

     

    Gigantic Greedy Profiteering Deadly Lies About High-Fructose corn Syrup

    2010 Corn Refiners Association advertisements feature parents walking through a corn field, talking about children's nutrition concerns and being confused by recent information about HFCS. So they consulted "medical and nutrition experts" and discovered that "Whether it's corn sugar or cane sugar, your body can't tell the difference."

    The Center for Science in the Public Interest, calls the Corn Refiners advertisements "deceptive." ZED is not so kind. We are convinced that the Corn Refiners Association ads are deadly profiteering LIES, which should be treated as a felony crime against innocent children.

    There is a "staggering" amount of HFCS in food targeted at children. Check the label on every food item that you buy. Time Magazine wrote: "unless you're making a concerted effort to avoid it, it's pretty difficult to consume high-fructose corn syrup in moderation."

    Man-made high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is one of the worst of all commonly-used sweeteners. The fructose molecule is a simple white crystalline "monosaccharide" that is the most soluble high-glycemic index high-calorie sweetener. Honey, tree fruits, berries, melons, and some root vegetables contain fructose.

    About 530 million pounds of crystalline fructose is produced every year, mostly from the by products of corn ethanol production. Widespread use of man-made HFCS is a cheap, pervasive, waste product of the insane government-subsidized process of inefficiently producing ethanol from corn.

    HFCS has long been used in cattle feed to make them rapidly gain body fat. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine reported that animals fed high-fructose corn syrup continue to eat beyond what they would normally consume using feed without HFCS. This is profitable IF you want to sell saturated-fat cattle. However, HFCS is life-threatening for humans.

    In 1977, short-sighted corrupt U.S. politicians implemented a system of sugar tariffs and sugar quotas. This significantly increased the cost of imported sugar. U.S. food manufacturers sought cheaper, more-profitable sweeteners (without regard for the scientific evidence of the large-scale public health damage it would do). Greed is far more important to American agribusiness than consumer good health.

    High-fructose corn syrup is more economical than traditional cane or beet sugar, because the domestic U.S. and Canadian prices of sugar are twice the global price. In Mexico, Coca-Cola is still made with more-healthy cane sugar, whereas in the USA, Coke (and most soft drinks and juices targeted at children) are loaded with health-damaging HFCS.

    The price of HFCS is kept below market value in America by pork-barrel government subsidies that are used to buy votes from American farmers. Since 1977, the per-capita consumption of fructose has greatly increased, and a predictable epidemic of obesity and age-onset type II diabetes is impacting U.S. children. If you travel to a country that does not encourage HFCS, and you see obese people on the street, there is a good chance that they are American tourists. The HFCS cause and the USA obesity effect are easy to observe.

    Iowa is a major producer of USA subsidized corn. Iowa is the starting point for Presidential candidate's campaigns, so they shamelessly pander to corn farmers with promises of government corn subsidies. Growing corn in the United States is unprofitable without government subsidies. The evidence has become overwhelming - deadly HFCS would not be used in the U.S. without politically-corrupt sugar tariffs, sugar import quotas, and vote-buying empty-calorie unhealthy corn subsidies.

    The human digestive system has evolved to metabolize natural glucose much better than laboratory-produced HFCS. When natural glucose is consumed, insulin is released by the pancreas, which allows cells to use the glucose, which in turn lowers the level of excess blood sugar after each meal (postprandial). Our brains function almost entirely off of glucose. Our muscles must have glucose to do what they do. Our liver converts body fat to glucose when necessary to keep us alive. When our blood sugar is high, our liver converts glucose into body fat - to be stored and used when glucose demand exceeds glucose in the food we eat.

    Insulin encourages postprandial production of "leptin", which is a hormone that helps control appetite and conversion of glucose into stored body fat. When our blood glucose level rises after a meal, leptin suppresses production of "ghrelin", which is a stomach hormone linked to feelings of hunger. In contrast to normal glucose metabolism, a large amount of man-made fructose does NOT increase leptin. Fat stores increase out of control, and we feel constant hunger, making us continually overeat - the same way that HFCS makes cattle get fat faster. Is this the legacy we want to leave to our morbidly-obese diabetic American children?

    The significant amount of fructose consumed by most Americans can increase the pain of inflammation, and the risk of overeating, obesity, and deadly complications of type II diabetes (including neuropathy, amputations, blindness, brain strokes, and heart attacks).

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture published the peer-reviewed study from The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism titled: " Dietary Fructose Reduces Circulating Insulin and Leptin, Attenuates Postprandial Suppression of Ghrelin, and Increases Triglycerides"

    Only unscrupulous greedy profiteering LIARS would spend millions of dollars to advertise that "medical and nutrition experts" believe that "your body can't tell the difference" between cane sugar and HFCS. Boycott the evil Corn Refiner Association products. Support legislation to STOP subsidizing HFCS with scarce taxpayer dollars and deficit spending, AND MAKE HFCS ILLEGAL. There will be NO man-made HFCS allowed in Emerald Eco-City.

    Dark Pigment Anthocyanin Flavonoid Antioxidants

    The word "anthocyanin" is based on the two Greek words for flower + blue. Anthocyanins are found in the tissues of dark higher plants, including their leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Foods with significant anthocyanins generally appear to be blue, red, purple (magenta), or dark brown / black (according to pH). Their mild taste is moderately astringent.

    Anthocyanins are powerful anti-inflammatory antioxidant "flavonoids" that are synthesized through the "phenylpropanoid pathway." Inflammation is both a symptom and a cause of multiple human diseases, including deadly heart disease and diabetes. Anthocyanin flavonoids can lower the risk of hypertension by 10%. In plants, anthocyanins act like sunscreen. They absorb absorb green, blue and ultraviolet light (which is similar to the protection provided by melanin in dark-skin humans).

    As antioxidants, anthocyanin flavonoids prolong a healthy life by slowing the "oxidative cellular aging process." Black raspberry preparations have been shown to inhibit chemically-induced esophageal cancer in rats by 30-60%, and colon cancer by up to 80%. Polyphenolic extracts from cranberries inhibit the growth and proliferation of breast, colon, prostate, lung, and other malignant tumors. Cherries can inhibit pain-related COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Cherries can help treat arthritic disease of inflammation. Cherry fruit extract helps break up uric acid crystal needles, somewhat reducing the symptoms of mild gout. Rats fed tart cherry power along with a high-fat diet did not gain as much weight as those that did not receive the powder.

    The simple summary is that high-pigment anthocyanin foods may have multiple health benefits, with more being documented every year.

    A Sample Of A Few Anthocyanin Levels: mg / 100 g

    purple corn

    1642

    chokeberry

    1480

    red grape

    888

    eggplant

    750

    black raspberry

    589

    wild blueberry
    / bilberry

    558

    cherry

    350 - 400

    redcurrant

    80 - 420

    blackcurrant

    190 - 270

    red raspberry

    365

    açaí

    320

    marion blackberry

    317

    orange

    200

    red wine

    24 - 35

    red cabbage

    25

    red onion

    13 - 25

    green gooseberry

    0.7

    If the government is going to subsidize corn, it should only support the production of blue corn as a food, NOT yellow corn for food or ethanol. Corn should never be heated above the boiling point of water, to avoid the production of carcinogenic "acrylamides" (as in corn chips, etc.).

    Fresh foods tend to be more healthy than highly-processed foods. Heating and processing tend to destroy beneficial enzymes and antioxidants. One exception is lycopene (in tomatoes, etc.). Cooking tomatoes concentrates the lycopene (which helps improve eye heath).

    Processed-and-polished American instant white rice has much-poorer depleted nutrition than dark unprocessed organic rice (which is a foundation of healthy Asian nutrition). Natural sticky brown rice is usually better than white rice. Black (purple) Chinese rice is the highest in anthocyanins.

    There are a few exceptions to the rule of white, such as onions and garlic, which have cardiovascular circulation system benefits. Red onions are somewhat better than white or yellow onions.

    French fried white potatoes are the number one food sold in the number one fast-food "restaurant" chain in the world. White potatoes have the worst obesity-and-diabetes-causing glycemic index. The white portion of the potato is the worst part. The dark skin of a potato grows in contact with beneficial minerals in the soil. Idiots peel and throw away the potato skin, which is the only portion of the potato that most humans should eat.

    Caution: If potatoes turn green, they become toxic. Cooking does not remove the poisons. Your eyes must be wise to survive.

    Morbidly obese kids in McDonalds If you are overweight, have diabetes, a sedentary lifestyle, or a family history of cancer, heart disease or brain stroke, you should never eat white rice, white bread, or the white portion of a potato. Occasional carbohydrate loading may benefit some healthy athletes just before they run a marathon, but but excess carbs are deadly for most lazy fat Americans.

    Worse yet, starchy white carbohydrate foods should never be cooked above the boiling point of water (212O F). High temperature cooking (like deep-fat frying in any kind of oil, skillet frying, grilling, broiling, roasting, or oven baking) turns carbohydrates into toxic "acrylamides", which increase the risk of intestinal, colon, liver, kidney, and urinary-tract cancer. Acrylamide production is a function of cooking time and temperature - Longer and higher is much worse. French fries and potato chips are prime examples of unhealthy acrylamide.

    Anthocyanin flavonoids can reduce the risk of colon cancer, but antioxidants cannot eliminate the risk of a diet that full of overwhelming carcinogens.

    Adding salt to white overcooked foods is triple unhealthy, especially for people with high blood pressure, or those who will soon have hypertension because of poor nutrition.

    Roasted coffee and the crust on white-flour bread are loaded with mutagenic acrylamides. Burger buns are particularly bad for multiple reasons, since they are mostly crust. (People who bribe children with cheap Chinese toys to get them to like hamburger happy meals with french fries and diabetes-causing high-fructose corn syrup drinks and ketchup should be treated as felons - IMHO.)

    Avoid Coffee and A Danish

    Coffee and a fried white-flour cholesterol-and-sugar bomb doughnut is a very bad way to start a crummy day. Caffeine is a neural irritant. It makes every neuron in your brain and central nervous system fire more rapidly than they normally would. Too much caffeine and you hands begin to shake uncontrollably. It over-excites neurons and makes they burn out faster, like turning an incandescent light on-and-off rapidly. Sugar and starch increase the pain and disease related to inflammation. They also make you hyperactive for a short time, and then you have sugar depression. Caffeine, sugar, and white flour negatively impact irritability and personality. Roasting coffee beans and frying flour create carcinogenic acrylamides that cumulatively increase the risk of cancerous DNA mutations. Coffee tastes bad to children. Like smoking, children acquire a taste for coffee when they think it makes them look more grown up, but they usually want to cover up the bad taste with sugar and high-saturated-fat cream. Parents who teach unhealthy bad habits to children should be reprimanded and educated by law.

    Yams Instead Of White Potatoes

    It is curious but darker organic yams and sweet potatoes have lower glycemic index, and higher nutritional value, than more-common white potatoes. Small amounts of some varieties of specially-grown organic yams have been found to be effective in holistic medicine studies. Do not cook them above 212O F. Do not fry them. Do not add sugar, syrup, or salt. Darker organic yams have a wonderful natural sweet flavor that should not be covered up. Let your eyes teach you about healthy delicious pigments.

    Cantaloupe Instead Of Honey Dew Melons

    We know that darker cantaloupe is one of the best-nutrition fruits, whereas green honey dew melon (often found on salad bars) is merely a bad source of high-glycemic-index empty calories.

    Blood-Red Carrots Instead Of Orange Or White Carrots

    The dark-red and magenta (purple) carrots that are commonly found in India are very healthy. Dark carrots have a higher content of healthy anthocyanin flavonoid antioxidants, and lycopene (which is also in vine-ripened tomatoes). Blood-red carrots are often used in holistic ayurvedic medicine. In contrast, the high-yield orange-or-white American factory-farm carrots sell well to untrained (creature of bad habit) eyes, but grandma did not realize that pale USA carrots have inferior nutrition.

    Netherlands Royal StandardSO... Why do Americans eat orange carrots instead of healthier varieties? The answer is similar to why Americans eat so many unhealthy white-potato french fries, which are diabetes-causing deadly empty calories, boiled in high-temperature fat (causing carcinogenic acrylamides), and covered with hypertension-causing salt. The answer in both cases is because humans are creatures of bad-habit food tradition, in contradiction to modern scientific knowledge about proper nutrition.

    The beta carotene (precursor to vitamin A) in orange carrots is much healthier than french fries, but why don't Americans grow blood-red carrots (that "let your food be your medicine")? The answer surprises most people who have not taken the time to study the nature of the less-healthy food that they buy and foolishly feed their families.

    In the 1600's, Netherlands growers selectively bred orange carrots to match the patriotic color of the country. Yup, orange carrots (which eventually found their way to New England) are a conscious choice of Netherlands patriotism, instead of superior medicinal red-carrot nutrition (from India). Always remember this obsolete orange flag when you pay allegiance to the Netherlands with patriotic orange carrots, instead of providing better food to your family (which can be grown for the same price).

     

    The silly decisions we make as an uninformed culture are indeed QUITE STUPID

    "Traditions" are often obsolete rituals or habitual beliefs passed down within a resistant-to-change society,
    with origins in previous bad assumptions, still maintained in the present, despite superior current science

    Even our untrained tongue knows that dark-pigment veggies taste better,
    and modern nutritional scientists now know why

    Healthier dark pigment carrots

    Do you have powers of observation, or critical thinking skills, or do you
    just eat whatever your profit-motivated factory-farm supermarket offers?

    Emerald Eco-City cares very much about the QUALITY of the food we will grow

     

    So What Is Our Ecocity Greenhouse Point About Dark Pigment Plants?

    Healthier dark-colored organic foods usually have superior nutrition - Unhealthy white foods: not so much.

    In the following material, we will discuss our Magenta Research. We have two strong motivations: (1) produce healthier food (as described above), and (2) greatly increase crop yields per indoor greenhouse acre - with plants that make more-efficient use of available resources, including water and light.

    Dark (nearly black) Magenta pigment plants should be inherently healthier. Higher antioxidants will make them more resistant to disease, and have longer shelf life. Local greenhouses will shorten the time from picking to plate, eliminating the need for unhealthy preservatives.

    Magenta pigment leaves may be able to grow 24-hours a day with low-levels of plant-specific inexpensive artificial light at night.

    Plants go through multiple seasonal stages of germination, foliage, flowers, cross pollination, and fruit. They need different light and nutrition during each stage. Our goals will include optimized our use of our available resources during all seasons and stages for year-round, continual, abundant, healthy, fresh food production.

    These are aspirational visionary food-production goals that Emerald Eco-City R&D will spend significant time investigating, and training the needy world about what we learn. We will study the past and present permaculture science, but not be ruled by obsolete traditions, or the many bad habits of today's factor farms. We will NOT USE ANY UNSUSTAINABLE POLLUTING PETROLEUM, but we will make better use of well-educated, ever-learning human intelligence, experimentation, and creative problem solving skills.

    We will NOT patent our discoveries (as evil profiteers like Monsanto have done), but rather we will invest resources in caring-and-sharing our future food abundance.

    Bill Gates was a greedy profiteer most of his life, and then he became a philanthropist. Emerald Eco-City will be built on loving philanthropy from day one.

    If all of our goals are based on living in harmony with Nature and with each other, who in the world can prevail against us in the long run?

    Man has ignored the Wisdom of Nature for far too long. Emerald Eco-City will help fulfill God's assignment to be good stewards of the Garden of Eden.

     

    Magenta Leaves

    Purple Passion Spinach Magenta foods are generally healthier than food with lower levels of beneficial antioxidants. But, most magenta fruits and veggies have green leaves. Green means that the chlorophyll in the leaves reflects (does not absorb) the green portion of the visible sunlight spectrum. This is good in areas and seasons with intense sunlight. It keeps the leaves from burning up in the summer sun. However, light-green leaves are much less efficient in areas with lower light levels (like food-crop greenhouses in the winter).

    Emerald Eco-City seeks to make better use of short winter days, when the angle of the sun is 47 degrees lower than in the summer.

    We would also like to find ways to make better use of lower-cost plant growth artificial lighting systems on long winter nights.

    We need leaves that absorb green light, and thus appear to be dark purple (magenta)or even black.

    Consider Purple Passion Spinach (pictured on the right). Uncooked, clean fresh organic baby green spinach (without pesticides, herbicides, or preservatives) is a healthy nutritious food. BUT, Purple (Magenta) Spinach is even better. It tastes better, costs no more to grow, but it has three times more beneficial vitamin A than factory farm green spinach. It can grow to a very-productive six feet tall.

    Can our nutrition scientists develop more greenhouse food crops that absorb green light? Nature already proves it is possible.

     

    Finding What We Are NOT Looking For

    Quite often, research scientists searching for one thing find something else surprising that is very-valuable to mankind.

    The man who invented 3M Post-It ® Note products was actually trying to develop a strong permanent adhesive. His failure was an unexpected huge commercial success.

    You don’t have to know what you will find before you find it. You just need to begin your search for new hidden knowledge with an open, observant, mobile, malleable mind.

    Never-before unparalleled goals are valid starting points for aggressive research - But expect the unexpected (smile)

    Spectral Analysis of Proposed Chlorophyll Magenta  and Chlorophyll Black

     

    Nature Teaches Us That Dark Magenta (Purple) Leaves Have A Place In This World

    Dark Purple Leaves

    This plant grows large heart-shaped purple leaves that are about three feet (one meter) across. It probably evolved to thrive in particular seasonal local lighting conditions and nutrients in the soil. We think that such leaves more-efficiently absorb low-level light for photosynthesis than green leaves do. They absorb green light, not reflect it.

    Notice the shade on the lower leaves. These plants have adapted well to partial shade environments. We can study exactly why and how they do it.

    Is it possible or reasonable that we might imitate Nature and genetically engineer magenta leaves into greenhouse food crops - using familiar recombinate DNA gene splicing technology? Would the resulting plants be healthy, hardy, and safe to eat? Would they provide superior nutrition as many dark-pigment food crops already do? Would these new plants grow well 24-hours a day with inexpensive low-level artificial light? We won't know if we don't try. Some trial and error will be involved.

    Emerald Eco-City will be a hot house for such innovative food crop R&D.

     

    There are many ways that we might develop hypothetical man-made Chlorophyll Black:

    (1) Develop an unprecedented single man-made molecule with the above Chlorophyll Black light-spectra absorption characteristics – making efficient use of the entire electromagnetic visible light spectrum – producing more nutritious carbohydrates and amino acids in the low light found in a greenhouse than natural Chlorophyll does. Hypothetical Chlorophyll-Black-based photosynthesis should also make innovative new plants grow well in a limited amount of artificial light (produced from electricity).

    (2) Imitate Nature and develop man-made Chlorophyll Magenta. Combine it with natural Chlorophyll b.

    (3) Cross breed desirable characteristics (from plants similar to the Jewel Orchid, etc.) into low-light greenhouse plants that efficiently produce large-yield food crops year round (summer and winter) - Challenging and perhaps very time consuming.

    (4) Develop a low-cost leaf coating, or an above-the-plant light filter, that absorbs green light and fluoresces to either red or blue light (or both), which are both then absorbed efficiently by existing natural Chlorophyll – no change to the plants. Green is reflected, whereas red and blue are absorbed – Bathe the plant in more-intense red + blue light, by transforming green light to red and/or blue. See Fluorescence  

    Something similar is already being done today to (a) make blue-or-UV LED lights fluoresce white light, and to (b) make blue-sensitive photovoltaics absorb the red and green found in white light - which nearly triples their absorption of white-light solar energy from about 14% to over 40% energy efficient.

    There are multiple emerging methods to accomplish these two light input / output modern commercial LED-and-PV goals. One involves the use of use a phosphor material that converts monochromatic light from a blue-or-UV solid-state LED light source to broad-spectrum white light – in much the same way as fluorescent light fixtures have worked since 1901. An interesting real-world modern nanotechnology for changing the frequency of light input to different-color light output is Quantum dots. The diameter of atoms (and molecules) influences their light output electromagnetic wavelength and frequency. Quantum dots work well, but they are not (yet) inexpensive to manufacture.

    Can we learn how to cost-effectively “grow” superior frequency-changing fluorescent materials for photosynthetic plants?

    Perhaps some combination of (1), (2), (3), and (4) above would be useful ?

    Having developed one-or-more of the above four laboratory solutions, can we “teach” self-replicating plants to “grow” the solution components, inexpensively in high volume?

    Just because something has not been done before, does NOT mean it is impossible.
    Some desirable new inventions cost less and provide more benefits than change-resistant, recalcitrant, business-as-usual, obsolete, status quo.

    "One should bear in mind that there is nothing more difficult to execute, nor more dubious of success, nor more dangerous to administer than to introduce a new order to things; for he who introduces it has all those who profit from the old order as his enemies; and he has only lukewarm allies in all those who might profit from the new.” - Niccolo Machiavelli - 1513 book on statecraft and power for “The Prince”

    Recent radical new technology advances give us hope for far more in the near future.

    If we don’t try, we certainly will not learn if our goals are feasible, scalable, and cost-efficient.

    A well-stated goal is half of the solution. Many R&D projects have similar goals.

     

    Self-Replicating Organic Biological Photovoltaics (and Storage Batteries)

    We know with scientific certainty that worldwide naturally-evolved photosynthesis can use red and blue sunlight to generate carbohydrates (like glucose and cellulose), amino acid proteins, and release pure oxygen by using photons, CO2, H2O, Nitrogen, and many nutrients from the Earth.

    We know that part of natural photosynthesis involves splitting pure Hydrogen and Oxygen from H2O water.

    We know that Hydrogen is an excellent clean-energy storage medium that can be used for 24-hour on-demand energy (in fuel cells, when the sun is not shining).

    We know that humans have developed catalysts that cause water to split into Hydrogen and Oxygen, when it is illuminated with radiant energy from the Sun.

    We know that man-made photovoltaic cells can use photons to directly generate electricity from sunshine. In some sunny locations, utility-scale PV’s are cost-competitive with burning coal, petroleum, natural gas or nuclear power plants. This should be a complete “no brainer”, but sadly, electricity from free sunshine is still not used effectively where it should be.

    (1) Can we cost-effectively use organic biological systems to generate a lot of clean, green, free-energy electricity?

    (2) Can we “teach” self-replicating plants to generate biological photovoltaic system components in huge quantities, and at lower cost than today’s PV’s?

    (3) Can we scale up the existing process, and lower the cost, of using sunshine to split H2O water into H2 Hydrogen and O2 Oxygen?

    CAN OUR NON-LEARNING SOCIETY DO WHAT WE SHOULD HAVE DONE AFTER THE 1973 OPEC OIL EMBARGOES ? ? ?

     

    DNA – The Blueprint For Our Exciting New Technology Future

    For over three decades, modern recombinant-deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) gene splicing “genetic engineering” has been making slight alterations to existing life forms to “teach” them how to make self-replicating organic biochemical substances.

    Emerald Eco-City thinks that humans can and will soon learn how to apply proven biotechnology to “grow” innovative Photosynthetic and Photovoltaic materials - in the near future.

    The necessary proofs of concepts are already in place, and very-viable-and-valuable in large-volume commercial production. For example, roughly 450 million humans have diabetes. Insulin-dependant diabetics can have their lives significantly extended, and their quality of life greatly improved, with injections of recombinant-DNA-source human insulin. See http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm

    1978 recombinant-DNA source Humulin is composed of actual living HUMAN cells that are incubated and replicated in sterilized chicken eggs. Humulin would have been considered a nearly-impossible miracle only a few decades ago. Some diabetics would die rather quickly today without modern recombinant-DNA technology. Very-few people believe that there is anything wrong with man-made life-saving genetic engineering insulin. It is part of everyday life for hundreds of millions of thankful diabetics.

    There is every reason to believe that creative applications of genetic engineering will very-soon allow humans to “grow” lower-cost innovative solutions to low-light photosynthesis, photovoltaics, energy-storage batteries, etc. – Unlimited Potential.

    We merely need to (a) develop laboratory solutions of exactly what we want, and then
    (b) teach living organisms how to grow the self-replicating solution components for us.

    All that’s lacking is sufficient belief in our visionary Emerald Eco-City aggressive goals.

     

    Our Place On This Earth

    The majority of Native Americans were directly involved in hunting, gathering, production, preparation and storage of food. 42% of early American settlers were organic food farmers. They HAD to respect the Laws of Nature, or die. Today, less than 2% of our American population grow our food. An increasing portion of USA food production jobs have been outsourced overseas – requiring mammoth amounts of unsustainable imported petroleum for transportation.

     

    We can no longer survive without our factory farms. Our current agricultural practices are very unhealthy and totally unsustainable.

     

    Today, roughly 5 million American farmers produce our food (depending on what you call a “farm”). If 42% of Americans were directly involved with farming, that would be jobs for an additional 120 million people. That is not going to happen, but organic, non-oil-based, SUSTAINABLE farming, and the elimination of cheap, low-quality imported food may soon provide ten million new GOOD jobs for the unemployed. It will require a superior education, and radical reinvention of LOCAL 365-day-per-year food production, processing and delivery.

     

    The vast majority of our adults, and especially children, now suffer from Nature Deficit Disorder In one study, a table of common vegetables (like tomatoes, etc.) were set in front of USA grade school children. Most young children did not know veggie names, where they came from, or what they were for.

     

    Emerald Eco-City will use, develop, and incrementally improve technologies to solve all of the above man-made problems.

     

    We invite participation from experts and students around the world. We will share our accumulated knowledge with everyone on the Internet (as this website is already doing today), and through extensive hands-on intern programs, which will provide intellectual seeds for our very-needy world.

     

    Promote Global Worming - Vermiculture

    Healthy organic living soil contains 52 important nutrients. Industrial factory farms badly deplete and erode the soil. They use inorganic fertilizers (chemicals made from petroleum and natural gas) to replace only the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K). They apply toxic biocides to the soil that kill insects, weeds, worms, good-and-bad microorganisms (and eventually the consumers of the unhealthy food that they produce). Terrible greedy companies (like Monsanto, Cargill and Archer Daniels Midland) genetically alter proprietary profitable seeds to tolerate their man-made biocide chemical toxins, producing low-nutrition, obesity-and-diabetes-causing "counterfeit" food products - It looks like food, but lacks some of life-critical nutrition found in Nature.

    These are totally-unsustainable downward trends in greedy profiteering food production, that ignore human health issues and modern food science.

     

    How can we restore the 52 natural nutrients in healthy soil, without using known toxins, or damaging Earth's delicate environment?

    Earthworm casts are among the highest grade of organic fertilizer available. Nutrients from the earthworm’s body are transferred to the soil as it is processed. According to a study by the USDA, the great fertility of the Nile River Valley was due in large part to the activity of earthworms. After analyzing the soil, researchers found the castings of earthworms from a six month period to weigh almost 120 tons per acre – about ten times the amount of castings on American and European soils. Egyptians so revered the life-critical earthworm that Cleopatra declared it to be a sacred protected animal.

    The glaciers of the last ice age scraped off most of America's top soil and killed our earth worms, leaving low-nutrient soil. American factory farms use fertilizers and biocides from unsustainable petroleum and natural gas. The petroleum products kill many of the worms that would normally provide valuable biologically-diverse high-nutrient top soil. The ongoing depletion of our finite living top soil is totally unsustainable for long.

    American settlers over-exploited our thin layer of mid-western top soil and depleted shallow aquifers - resulting in the terrible Dust Bowl and Great Depression of the 1920's and 1930's. In 1937, George S. Oliver published "Our Friend the Earthworm." It provided stark facts that America must pay closer attention to the Laws of Nature (which are largely being ignore in the new millennium).

     

    Organic permaculturists must learn 52-nutrient composting, and the role played by earthworms and good microorganisms in healthy living soil.

    Just suppose that the supply of petroleum continues to decline and the pump price rises at the current rate. Soon, 80% of our current uses of petroleum will cease to be cost effective. The majority of the cost of today's food is for products made from oil. When oil is scarce, what will we do? How will we grow and distribute food?

    How will we then fertilizer our badly-eroded, depleted, top soil? Will future organic food grown in healthy worm-produced soil cost less and be of higher quality than what is in our supermarkets today? If so, why not Promote Global Worming TODAY? We MUST unlearn unsustainable factory farming, and learn the TRUTH anew.

     

    The Natural Nitrogen Cycle Of All Life On Earth

    Nitrogen (N) is abundant on Earth - N2 is over 78% of our atmosphere by volume. N2 gas is colorless, odorless and tasteless. N2 fills your lungs right now.

    Life on Earth has evolved to be very dependent on nitrogen. N in many different forms occurs in ALL of Earth's living organisms. N is the essential foundation of amino acids and thus of proteins, and in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) chromosomes and genes that are the blueprint for the biodiversity of all life on Earth.

    Improving modern food production for 7 billion humans mandates understanding Nature's endless nitrogen cycle. The more permaculturists know about N, the better they can provide year-round healthy sustainable nutrition for their local community.

    Plants and animals cannot draw life-critical nitrogen directly from the atmosphere. N2 gas (molecular nitrogen) has a powerful triple bond that makes it difficult to break down and assimilate directly into useful biochemical compounds.

    Plants draw nitrogen in through their roots (from moist soil or hydroponics) - usually in the form of nitrate (NO3) or ammonium (NH4+). The plus sign means that NH4+ammonium is a positive ion that "sticks" to soil so that water does not wash it away. It also bonds with nitrate.

     

    White crystalline "ammonium nitrate" (NH4NO3) is a commonly-used unnatural man-made chemical fertilizer that is 33% nitrogen. Ammonium nitrate is normally made by combining nitrogen (N2) and hydrogen (H2) gases to form toxic ammonia (NH3), which is then combined with toxic nitric acid (HNO3) to form industrial-factory-farm NH4NO3 fertilizer. By far, the major source of the necessary hydrogen used in the manufacture of NH4NO3 is methane (CH4) from natural gas. H2 gas is obtained through a process that releases significant amounts of global-warming CO2 into the atmosphere where it changes Earth's climate in a negative way. Dirty coal is sometimes used as the source of hydrogen through a process called coal gasification, which releases very-toxic carbon monoxide (CO). Significant fuel is also burned to produce heat for the NH4NO3drying process. Ammonium nitrate production, and excess nitrate pollution in our streams and aquifers have a very-heavy unsustainable negative impact on Earth's delicate environmental balance.

    Excess nitrates from factory-farm runoff contaminate streams, rivers, ponds, lakes and and oceans, causing microbial exponential-growth blooms. They deplete the oxygen in the water that is so necessary for the survival of the fish food chain.

    Water-soluble nitrogen compounds pass through soil and contaminate our ground water - the drinking source for half of Americans. Nitrates from inorganic fertilizers (used for industrial factory-farm crops, landscaping, and lawns), septic tank systems, pets and livestock often raise the ground water well-above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum limit of 10 milligrams per liter (10 mg/L) of nitrate. Toxic airborne NxOx nitrogen compounds and nitric acid rain (produced by burning anything in our 78% nitrogen atmosphere) further contaminate the atmosphere, soil, forests, lakes, and aquifers.

    Acid Rain Kills Forests

    NxOx and nitric acid (HNO3) rain can devastate local forest and lake ecosystems in areas that are similar to New York's previously-beautiful Adirondack Lakes, Catskills, Hudson Highlands, Rensselaer Plateau, and parts of Long Island.

     

    Obsolete unhealthy foods (like hot dogs, cured meats, cold cuts, and bacon) used sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate as preservatives. Look for nitrates and nitrites on food ingredient labels and NEVER BUY OR EAT THEM. Today we know better. Modern organic foods often explicitly state "No Nitrates or Nitrites."

    Ingested nitrites and nitrates form "nitrosamines", which are well-documented human carcinogens that are known to cause DNA damage and accelerated cellular degeneration (rapid aging). Studies have linked increased levels of nitrates with increased deaths from diseases including devastating Alzheimer's, diabetes mellitus, and Parkinson's disease, through the damaging effect of nitrosamines on DNA. Nitrosamines (formed in cured meats containing nitrates and nitrites), have been linked to gastric cancer and oesophageal cancer. Nitrates and nitrites are associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer. The UK World Cancer Research Fund states that processed meat increases the risk of colon cancer because of its nitrate content. Nitrite reacts with protein-rich foods (such as meat) to produce "N-nitroso" compounds (NOC's). Some NOC's cause cancer. NOC's are formed either when meat is cured, OR in the body when meat is digested.

    Plants need nitrates, but animals do not. Ingesting elevated levels of nitrates from our drinking water supply can cause low oxygen levels in the blood, which is a potentially-fatal condition in infants. Excess nitrate above 2 mg/L of drinking-or-cooking water is a common growing health hazard in much of polluted America.

     

    Adult humans only need a total of about 4 ounces of nitrogen-rich healthy protein PER DAY. One-half-to-all of your daily essential protein intake should be from organic vegetable / legume sources (including beans, rice, nuts, alfalfa sprouts, etc.) - being careful to eat the proper mixed balance of all essential amino acids.

    Eating meat (taking different prescription-and-illegal drugs and drinking alcohol) can have a long-term cumulative negative impact on your liver, heart, brain, and vascular system. A 10-year study showed that, eating the equivalent of a quarter-pound hamburger per day gave men a 22% higher risk of dying of cancer, and a 27% higher risk of dying of heart disease, compared to those who ate only 5 ounces per week. Individuals who eat a diet high in processed meats preserved with nitrates and nitrates have a greater risk of heart attack.

    Another 26-year study of women aged 30 to 55 documented 2,210 non-fatal heart attacks and 952 deaths from coronary disease. The study found that women who had two servings of meat per day had a 30% greater risk of developing heart disease compared to women who had only one half of a serving per day. www.WebMD.com/heart-disease/news/20100816/red-meat-raises-heart-attack-risk

    The more red meat that you eat, the more energy is consumed and wasted to raise, process, and deliver it,
    the more unsustainable environmental damage is done, and the LESS HEALTHY your family will be.

    Allowing or encouraging innocent children to eat double-cheeseburger happy meals should be considered a felony.

     

    Plants called "legumes" (like alfalfa, beans, carob, clover, lentils, lupins, mesquite, peanuts, peas and soy) are notable for their ability to "fix" atmospheric nitrogen for absorption through their roots. Legumes have a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with "rhizobia" bacteria that is found in their root nodules. Legumes are high-amino-acid sources of plant protein, which is often a healthier more-cost-effective substitute for high-cholesterol heart-and-liver-damaging animal meat protein.

    Animal urine and excrement contain unusable toxic ammonia (NH3). Dead animal bodies are made up of over two million unique proteins (that are coded by only about 25,000 nucleic acid genes in humans). Dead animal bodies are loaded with many forms of nitrogen-rich amino-acid-based proteins. Bacteria, worms and fungi in living soil recycle toxic ammonia and decaying animal bodies into useful ammonium and nitrates for absorption by plant roots, which is used in photosynthesis. Native Americans taught New England pilgrims to fertilize their plants with dead fish parts. Large dog owners observe that the ammonia in urine turns into fertilizer.

    Composting is a permaculture technique that endlessly recycles essential nitrogen in a sustainable way that does not rely on toxic laboratory chemicals or unsustainable expensive imported fossil fuels.

    Nature's Nitrogen Cycle - Always in balance - Sustainable

    Greenhouse aquaponics combines hydroponics (raising plants in nutrient-rich aerated water without soil) with aquacultural (farm-raised fish) in a self-sustaining environment-friendly complete nitrogen cycle for local year-round healthy organic food production.

    We can inexpensively grow our own solar-powered fish food with duckweed. Once we have an abundant supply of duckweed, we can then raise waterfowl (like ducks and geese) healthy eggs and meat for very-little addition expense. Duckweed is high in nitrogen - over 40% protein. Waterfowl love it more than commercial poultry feed. Duckweed is an abundant worldwide food source that thrives on fish and fowl excrement, and also provides a valuable part of natural water treatment.

    How many people do you know that understand and apply full-lifecycle organic natural high-school biology today? Factory Farms DO NOT.

    To survive in harmony with Nature, we must learn, apply, and teach
    the immutable, proven, sustainable, cyclical Laws of Nature.

     

    The Marspedia (Mars colonization project website) suggests that they will only need about 4,000 sq.ft. of horticultural greenhouse space per person. That would still require roughly 4 billion sq.ft. for a million people. We must soon do even better than that on Earth. But Precisely HOW?

    Emerald Eco-City plans to have roughly 80-million square feet of 60-foot-high indoor vertical farming greenhouse space (eight 10-million-square-foot greenhouse levels x 60-feet-high each = 480-foot total vertical farming height).

    Our Emerald Greenhouse Aquaponic Solariums will serve multiple year-round purposes including sub-tropical 365 food production integrated with our extensive FUN Edutainment attraction facilities. Our greenhouse plants will provide beauty, food, AND also pure oxygen for a million people, (IF we need to hermetically seal Emerald Eco-City in a catastrophic atmospheric event like a huge volcano eruption, Earth impact, bio terrorism, nuclear weapons fallout, etc.).

    By scrubbing the CO2 from the air we breath and other processes, we will NOT emit carbon dioxide into Earth's delicate atmosphere. This is an aggressive, but doable goal. It MUST be done on our Moon and Mars colonies. We need to learn how to live cost-effectively in a sealed biosphere on Earth, before we can do it on the Moon or Mars.

    Emerald Eco-City will also have some outdoor location-dependent seasonal food production facilities, based on local climatic conditions. The point is that our locally-provided solar / electric food production will demonstrate HOW to cost-effectively prosper and live an abundant life with ZERO Petroleum.

    Non-learning, highly-polluting, shortsighted, unsustainable business-as-usual industrial factory-farm fools cannot imagine HOW to apply basic lessons from high-school biology. Our declining world suffers from Stupidity and a Crisis of Creativity. We MUST rapidly and radically reverse our status-quo suicidal trends.

    Emerald Eco-City will grow a wide-variety of popular, tasty, fresh, nutritious food items for our residents to chose from. Our 80-million square feet of 60-foot-high aquaponic greenhouses will be used to grow healthy wholesome organic optimized tropical fruits, vegetables, nuts, berries, and roots. Indoor tropical herbivorous-fish farms will provide fresh, unpolluted, easily-digested protein indoors.

    The things that our residents order the most, will become our largest-volume food production items. Continual electronic food-preference feedback will influence all of our future planting and harvesting schedules.

    Livestock, waterfowl, and seasonal crops will mostly be raised outdoors. This will include fruit trees, bushes, and grasses like alfalfa, (which was used successfully in America to undo the damage caused by overgrazing and water over extraction during the U.S. Dust Bowl Desertification period that fueled The Great Depression).

    All of our livestock will be humanely raised - Freely ranging on their natural food sources. There will be NO corn-fed cattle in filthy feedlots that promote deadly disease, and require preventative antibiotics and growth hormones. Cattle are allergic to corn - It makes them produce huge quantities of global-warming methane out of both ends.

    Poultry will NOT be raised in inhumane cages their whole life, or confined to small areas where they continually peck at each other's excrement.

    Emerald Eco-City beef production will be very limited, and the price will accurately reflect the impact on Earth's environment and the health damage that too much can cause.

    It takes years to raise beef from birth to burger. In contrast, it only takes weeks to go from chicken egg to ready-to-eat meat. Roughly ten times more energy is consumed raising cattle than poultry. Plus, methane from millions of cattle contributes greatly to global warming greenhouse gas. Cattle also require much more water than birds. When vegetables are raised downstream from cattle, the veggies are often contaminated with toxic eColi bacteria, etc. Depending on how it is raised and cooked, red meat is generally much-less healthy than poultry.

    Corn-fed filthy-feedlot is the CHEAPEST more-unhealthy way to raise beef. It takes longer to raise healthier free-ranging beef on natural grass or alfalfa. To accurately reflect environmental impact, a pound of Emerald Eco-City beef SHOULD sell for ten times more than lean, boneless, skinless chicken, duck, goose, or turkey of the same weight. We are not saying that you cannot eat high-quality beef, but you should pay much more for it, and minimize consumption for family health's sake. Emerald Eco-City rational food economics should improve the quality of today's pervasive poor-nutrition inefficient American hamburger lifestyle choices.

    Emerald Eco-City will absolutely NEVER subsidize unhealthy unsustainable tainted food, as our insane corrupt U.S. government is doing today!

    In America, factory food production is often filthy, and poorly regulated / monitored / inspected. Mouse droppings permeate chicken feed, spreading bacterial salmonella to millions of birds and billions of eggs. Over 100,000 cases of salmonella food poisoning happen in the U.S. every year. Many go unreported or incorrectly self diagnosed as a simple-or-severe "stomach ache."

    Millions of Americans get sick every year from tainted food, without understanding the basics of cause and effect. 2011 Republican legislation aimed to REDUCE food-supply regulation and funding for tainted imported food inspection. Where is the public outrage? Emerald Eco-City will demonstrate the long-overdue solution.

    The human immune system of a healthy adult can deal with small amounts of infectious food poisons, but not children, the elderly, or people who are ill with weakened immune systems. For them, tainted food in the American food supply can be deadly (either cumulatively over time, or killing in a matter of days).

    Part of our immune system is our normal digestive stomach acid. People who frequently take antacids disable an important part of their immune system, making them more susceptible to infections like salmonella commonly found in filthy factory farm poultry products.

    Raw milk products are often loaded with infectious white bacterial pus. Pasteurization kills it, but leaves toxic byproducts. NEVER CONSUME ANY RAW MILK PRODUCTS. Among other things, it causes lifelong Type 1 Diabetes in young innocent children.

    Our insane federal government ALLOWS filthy-factory-produced ground meat products (like hamburger, sausage and ground poultry) to have 3% ACTIVE LIVING INFECTIOUS BACTERIA. Large batches often contain meat from 100+ animals. If any one is tainted, it infects the entire batch, and the (sometimes deadly) bacteria grows exponentially. YOU MUST COOK SUCH MEAT TO AN INTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF 165+ degrees F. Even then your family will eat toxic byproducts of dead bacteria. We make frequent use of our $40 digital infrared thermometer, with every meal we cook.

    To deal with widespread (potentially deadly) infectious bacteria, many filthy factory farms add large doses of antibiotics to their animal feed. This kills both bad AND GOOD bacteria in the animals' gut, which can make them have less-healthy digestion.

    Some of the antibiotics fed to animals are passed on to consumers. The net effect is that the competitive balance between good-and-bad bacteria (in livestock and humans) is thrown off. With nothing to slow down the exponential growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, it creates rapid growth of Super Bugs that cannot be controlled with any type of known medication. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics is very deadly, but commonly allowed by our corrupt U.S. federal government.

    Emerald Eco-City will have world-class food production regulation, monitoring, inspection, and disease-source detection / prevention. We will not allow any of our restaurants to sell underpriced beef (especially low-quality contaminated imported ground meat), or use toys to bribe children to eat food that is bad for them, AND bad for Earth's delicate environment.

    We are not vegan fanatics, but a well-balanced vegan meal with the proper mix of amino acid protein building blocks consumes 1 / 20 the energy of beef. Instead of unhealthy food being widely advertised and cheaper than healthy food (as it is in America today), we need to make nutritious good food the most-popular cost-effective lifestyle choice. We do NOT need subsidies or coercion to make this happen. We just need accurate pricing that reflects the true total cost and health benefits of locally-grown, superior-quality, sustainable, organic, aquaponic food production.

     

    Our children growing up in Harmony with Nature will be encouraged to care for baby chicks, and eventually to help hunt for their eggs - A Nature-based education will be carefully designed to always be motivational and FUN. All of our students will grow up being familiar with the most-advanced permaculture technology in the world.

    Edutainment will include year-round healthy exercise in our greenhouse solariums, and outdoors when it is appropriate. Our amusement attractions and Sustainability University will include activities that will make moving around fun.

    We are long overdue to phase out unhealthy classrooms that force a sedentary lifestyle on bored student minds.

    Nature-based permaculture is somewhat more labor-intensive than huge Dead-End, Diesel-Powered Filthy Factory Farms, which often inhumanely produce low-quality, less-than-healthy, contaminated food.

    We expect that OVER 3% of our Eco-City population (30,000+ people) will be directly involved with food production, and the most-advanced greenhouse horticulture, hydroponics, aquaponics, R&D effort in the world. People who wish to reduce their family's cost of food will have the option to work part time, during harvests, etc. Our food producers should be very pleased and proud of their unprecedented new Emerald Green Jobs. We expect to attract many student interns and researchers.

    All of our Emerald Eco-City grade-school teachers and mentors will receive basic training in FUN Edutainment about sustainable local greenhouse permaculture. They will weave Living in Harmony with Nature into entertaining field trips. The Science of Participatory Sustainability will be an element of the basic primary-school curriculum. Some of our children will chose to go into the honorable profession of advanced food production research and development.

    Part of Emerald Eco-City's goals overlap with the modern 4-H Club hands-on projects in agricultural science, engineering and technology. Emerald Eco-City will be a 4-H sponsor, and we hope to inspire and hire some of their very-best and brightest. A significant percentage of FFA members live in an urban environment. We plan to integrate such programs in our Eco-City.

    Some of our first Emerald Eco-City full-time residents will be expert greenhouse horticulturists, food-production research scientists, graduate students-and-interns on research projects, and intelligent, well-trained, fairly-compensated food- production workers. Our first food will be mostly brought in from nearby outside suppliers - To specifications and non-disposable packaging that our contracts require. One goal during this initial phase will be to minimize oil-based imported food production and transportation - Relying on local growers who may eventually become Eco-City residents.

    We expect to rapidly ramp up our self-sufficient food production capacity over two years, as Emerald Eco-City begins to fill up with new residents who want to Live in Harmony with Nature.

    We will be a worldwide collaboration-and-training center of tomorrow, in cooperation with many others. We will offer extensive internships and never-ending graduate-student research projects. Our results will be openly shared with the world on the Internet, soliciting non-proprietary open-technology iterative-refinement suggestions to benefit all humans. Anything less is suicidal unsustainability.

     

    The Eden Project

    One of the World’s Largest Greenhouses today is “The Eden Project” near St. Austell in Cornwall
    It has become one of the most popular tourist attractions in the United Kingdom

    The World’s Largest Greenhouse,The Eden Project

    Eden demonstrates the popularity of a large-greenhouse ecological training facility with multiple diverse climatic biomes. But, UK’s Eden does not focus on greenhouse horticulture food production.

    The Eden Experience is a role model for some of Emerald Eco-City’s training-and-tourism edutainment concepts, but we will go far beyond UK’s Eden with our large-scale practical applications of greenhouse permaculture food-production facilities.

     

    Biosphere 2

    The University of Arizona “Biosphere 2” stated mission was “to serve as a center for research, outreach,
    teaching and life-long learning about Earth, its living systems, and its place in the universe.”

    University of Arizona “Biosphere 2”

    Although somewhat obsolete, Biosphere 2 still draws many guests from around the world.
    B2 has many similarities to the UK Eden Project, but B2 was also used initially to
    demonstrate a self-contained, enclosed habitat for eight researchers for two years
    – Growing their own food and recycling all of their water and air.

    Biosphere 2 one of the Greenhouses

    B2Science.org now hopes to: (1) "Catalyze interdisciplinary thinking and understanding about Earth and its future - Be an adaptive tool for Earth education and outreach to industry, government, and the public" and (2) "Distill issues related to Earth systems planning and management for use by policy makers, students and the public"

    Emerald Eco-City will draw on the good-and-bad B2 Lessons Learned, and become a much-larger-scale, real-world, practical / pragmatic, cost-effective implementation of the Biosphere 2 stated goals, and much more. We hope to collaborate with them. Some of their graduates may become Emerald Eco-City greenhouse horticultural leaders. (We will be located in the same geographical southwestern U.S. desert region.)

    3D No-Soil Hydroponic Aquaculture / Aquaponics – Maximum yield from minimum greenhouse space

    3D Soilless Hydroponics 3D Soilless Hydroponics 2

    New Varieties of Vegetable TREES (as in the Disney World EPCOT Land exhibit)

    New Varieties of Vegetable TREES New Varieties of Vegetable TREES 2

    Prolific Tall Tomatoes - Efficient 3D Use Of Greenhouse Acreage

    Greenhouse Tall Tomatoes

    Vertical Farming of Nutritious Sprouts - Rapidly Grown In Only A Week Or Two

    Nutritious Sprouts Grow In Only A Week Nutritious Sprouts Grow

    Alfalfa is a GOOD source of Protein, Vitamin A, Niacin, Calcium, and a very-good source of Dietary Fiber, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Folate, Pantothenic Acid, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Zinc, Copper, and Manganese. Alfalfa sprouts are low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol, and Sodium.

    There are many excellent reasons why Alfalfa is widely-used in all-natural vitamin-and-food supplements. Alfalfa sprouts have a near-perfect ratio of 42% amino-acid proteins, 33% good carbohydrates, and 25% essential fatty acids (EFA’s like omega-3 alpha linolenic fatty acid).

    Local Alfalfa-and-Tomato on Sprouted-Wheat-and-Legume Bread – YUMMY !

    Sprouted - Wheat bread Local Alfalfa, Tomato on Sprouted  Legume Bread

    Closed Ecological Experiment Facility (CEEF) Tokyo Japan

    Closed Ecological Experiment Facility (CEEF)


    CEEF is a “Mini-Earth” scientific simulation of self-contained environments in which only energy and information are supplied from external sources. Similar to how the Moon and Mars colonies will have to survive with NO RESUPPLY FROM EARTH.

     

    It currently costs $400,000 to deliver one gallon of water from Earth to the Moon – Extraterrestrial colonies can NOT be as wasteful as we are on Earth today. Emerald Eco-City will invest in ongoing water conservation and recycling research programs. To live abundantly on our overcrowded Earth in harmony with Nature, we must learn the lessons required to live in harsh outer space.

    Traditional dirt farming involves flat-earth two-dimensional thinking, taking up an acre per person to provide diverse food for an entire megacity. Flatland farming is very seasonal and inefficient, in most U.S. locations. Emerald Eco-City’s Advanced Closed Ecological Experiment Facility Hydroponic Greenhouses will use technologies that are similar to those that will be required for the 21ST Century Moon and Mars colonies, which must be densely optimized in THREE DIMENSIONS.

    Like NASA, our Emerald Eco-City technology will be synergistically shared worldwide,
    as we proactively solicit constructive criticism and suggestions from our global friends.

     

    Maximizing Greenhouse Crop Yields in Three Dimensions

    Our eight stacked 60-foot-high vertical farming greenhouses offer 480 feet of multiple-biome height that we can use to maximize the productivity of our diverse solarium plants. Some food-producing trees may be over 30-feet high.

    We could also have 50+ foot tall hydroponic wire-cage cylinders near the solarium glass that rotate slowly during daylight hours to give plants equal exposure to direct sunlight. Since warm air will raise in the greenhouse by natural convection (warmer air is less dense than cooler air), these rotating cylinders would have warmer-climate plants near the top.

    In the winter, days are shorter, but the low winter sun will be nearly perpendicular to the vertical south-facing solarium glass, giving more-intense plant-growth solar radiation.

    In the summer, days are longer, but the sun rises in the northeast, and sets in the northwest. It is only on the south side of our greenhouse for a very short time, at peak solar altitude. Summer greenhouse solar radiation will be longer than winter, but it will be DIFFUSE light, not direct. This helps stabilize growing conditions, more like a year-round tropical environment would be. We will harvest fresh tropical crops every month of the year. Modern solid-state super-efficient LED grow lights will be used during shorter winter days to cost-effectively reduce growing time and maximize greenhouse solarium crop yields.

    Another way to maximize the use of our tall vertical farming greenhouses would be with a “Plant Movement Chain.”

    It is conceptually like two bicycle chains – One on the east, and one to the west, next to our south-facing glass. Long plant trays would be suspended between the two chains, similar to the swivel seats on a circular Ferris wheel. A lightweight version could be used for small plants. A larger heavy-duty chain could efficiently move mature orange trees up and down.

    During the day time, the side next to the south-facing glass will move upward. Irritation water will be added at the top, making the downward-moving plant trays a bit heavier. The upward plant trays will undergo more-rapid evaporation (photosynthesis transpiration), making them a bit lighter. Thus, the chain should need very-little electric-motor energy to make it move. It will be like a waterwheel, using gravity instead of more-expensive electricity.

    Our Emerald Greenhouse Plant Movement Chain will complete the slow-moving circuit of up-and-down rotation only a few times each day. The rate may be a bit faster in warmer conditions to keep the plants moist.

    The higher-angle Spring / Fall sunlight would only strike the lower portion of the chain wheel. In the hot summer, there would be no direct sunlight on the plant movement chain, unless we decide to use "heliostat" solar-tracking reflectors immediately to the south of our glass wall.

    Precise solar-exposure control would be customized for different types of seasonal rotating plants. We will continually experiment and fine tune all of our state-of-the-art Emerald Eco-City food-growth systems, and share what we learn with the world.

    Our plant movement chain would lend itself efficiently to a lightweight aeroponic growing system (or other alternatives with or without soil).

    Plant Movement Chain

    Our plants on the chain will experience hourly and seasonal variations in temperature and solar radiation. This process will cycle capillary action (like flexing muscles) and encourage maximum potential growth rate, without burning up when the sun is more-intense.

    Natural convection air flow, (plus optional small fans at the top and bottom), will create gentle breezes to also encourage rapid, strong, hearty, plant growth, increasing their durability and healthy crop yields. Every few days, plant trays can be manually rotated for more-symmetric plant growth, if needed.

    Valcent's 365 Vertical Farming Hydroponic Plant Movement Food Growth System at Paignton UK ZOO

    Disneyland was built on a 160-acre orange grove in Orange County California. As Disneyland grew in popularity, nearby orange groves were converted to urban-heat-island sprawl. In 1966, Walt Disney bought 27,400 acres for Walt Disney World, which is mostly in Orange County Florida. People like to live and play in areas where oranges grow.

    As I reached "self actualization", I lived near Disneyland, and later near Disney World. I enjoyed there "edutainment." I had season passes to all of the nearby theme parks, and I've studied all of them carefully.

    We will create Orange County conditions in our Emerald Eco-City greenhouse solarium FUN Edutainment theme parks, Sustainability University, and food-growing facilities.

    Many different varieties of orange-and-other tropical fruit trees thrive in delightful sunny Southern California and Florida. Different ones are harvested every month of the year. Californians often drink orange juice from Florida and Brazil. Floridians eat many oranges from California. Transporting whole juice and oranges thousands of miles consumes huge amounts of unsustainable petroleum.

    Emerald Eco-City will clearly demonstrate how to EFFICIENTLY grow abundant lower-cost tropical fruit locally that does NOT need to be transported thousands of miles with expensive oil. Experimental innovations like our Emerald Greenhouse Food Chain will always be evolving and being improved by our innovative creative Eco-Imagineers. It will be like the world's largest graduate school - Lifelong Learning in an Ever-Expanding Universe of Endless Possibilities tm

    In recent decades, orange growers have learned to trim the height of orange trees. You can look over the top of a mature modern orange grove. The shorter trees grow denser fruit yields that are close-to-the-ground, and easy-to-harvest. An Emerald Greenhouse 54-foot-high plant chain might hold 24 mature orange trees per up-and-down column. By altering columns on a single chain between young-and-mature orange trees, we could have about ten columns on a plant chain that is 60 feet wide from its east to west end. This would have roughly 240 productive orange trees in about 600 square feet (in contrast to nearly 240,000 square feet for traditional two-dimensional agriculture. Our economy of scale and focus on locally-grown zero-petroleum more-nutritious food in minimal square footage offers endless valuable cost-and-quality innovations.

    Almost all of our solarium greenhouse plants-and-trees will be mounted in small-and-large mobile pods. Cranes and industrial freight elevators can move them around anywhere in 3D within Emerald Eco-City. Our eight-layer greenhouses will have a variety of diverse climatic zones. Warmer tropical rain forests may be on the upper level greenhouses. We can spread similar plants across multiple climatic zones, and quickly learn where they are happiest and most productive.

    In addition to the vertical plant chain, we'll experiment with conveyor belts and turntables that will inexpensively move plants closer-and-farther from direct sunlight, to see how they perform under various controlled greenhouse conditions and seasons.

    We will have friendly honey bees in isolated greenhouse sections, to help with seasonal pollination, and the year-round production of unpolluted healthy honey. They will NOT be exposed to toxic fallout from fossil-fuel power plants, vehicles, or chemical pesticides. They will help with NATURAL permaculture plant cross-pollination experiments.

    We will have tightly-controlled laboratory Genetic Engineering (recombinant DNA gene splicing) research-and-development projects. BUT, we will NOT release untested genetic plant mutations outdoors where jet streams could carry their experimental pollen around the world, and do unpredictable harm to the food of unsuspecting Earth population (as genetically-modified Monsanto frankencorn has already done).

    Some plants will perform better in our Emerald Eco-City greenhouse aquaponic solariums than others. We will learn to optimize the use of our finite available space over time. We will monitor and publish our findings, including what type of plants perform the best in this innovative experimental prototype environment, comparing our notes with many others around the world, to help freely advance greenhouse horticulture state-of-the-art for the benefit of all mankind. We will NOT be selfish, greedy proprietary profiteers with the new knowledge that the Creator of the Universe reveals to us about Living in Harmony with Nature.

    Like Jonas Salk, our food-growing findings will belong to ALL of the people on Earth. When Salk was asked:
    "Who owns your polio vaccine?" Jonas always replied "The people! Could you patent the sun?"

    How many greedy pharmaceutical companies today care so much about the majority of Earthlings today?

    How many genetic food research labs (like Monsanto, Cargill, Archer Daniels Midland and Nestlé)
    care far more about their oppressive unsustainable selfish greedy PROFIT than a billion starving people?

    What is totally missing today is caring motivation to help others, and Nature-Loving Universal Consciousness.

    In a desperate time of worldwide revolutionary unrest,Emerald Eco-City will revive these life-critical essentials of a healthy global community, and teach them to our children and guests. Some fees from all of our residents and worldwide guests will help fund our never-ending aggressive R&D programs. We also hope to qualify for an endless stream of research grants for our graduate students, based on a consistent track record of successes.

    We hope to develop many other important greenhouse aquaponic horticulture innovations in only a few short years.
    Imagination and creative problem solving skills will be primary focal points of everything we do.
    EVERYONE will contribute to many Emerald Green Research, Development and Endless Edutainment projects.

     

    Greenhouse Glass

    The Architects of The Eden Project, Biosphere 2, and many other horticultural greenhouses apparently knew almost nothing about solar-thermal radiation in a sunspace, or the annual path of the sun. According to the U.S. Department Of Energy there are two basic considerations for optimizing the seasonal radiation of a sunspace / greenhouse: (1) The Directional Orientation, and (2) The Angle of the Window Glazing.

     

    Greenhouse Orientation

    In general, an equator-facing orientation, within 30 degrees east or west of true solar south, will provide around 90% of the maximum static solar collection potential. The optimum directional orientation will depend on site-specific factors that may determine where a sunspace can be located and on local landscape features such as trees, hills, or other buildings that may shade the sunspace during certain times of the day. Canting the building a bit toward the southeast, will increase morning solar gain when you need it the most after a cold winter night.

    Another possibility would be to build greenhouses that float on a barge. They might be one-to-three stories high. When winter days are short, and the winter sun is low on the horizon, the barge could be slowly rotated during the day to maximize scarce solar gain on the south wall (depending on latitude, climate, etc.).

    Over two millennia ago, the ancient Greek philosopher Aeschylus wrote:
    “Only primitives and barbarians lack knowledge of houses turned to face the winter sun.”

    (Despite the obvious fact that many such modern primitive barbarians have a degree in non-eco Architecture – Chuckle)

     

    Greenhouse Glazing Angle

    Sunlight is transmitted most efficiently through glass at a 90-degree right angle.
    As the angle of incidence deviates from perpendicular, the solar-thermal gain potential rapidly decreases.
    The closer that the sun's rays are to parallel with the glass, the less the solar gain potential.
    Undesirable reflection increases as desirable transmission decreases exponentially.

    Glazing Angle to Seasons

    It is cost-prohibitive in most applications to change the orientation and angle of greenhouse glass as the sun's position changes during the day and from one season to another (unless you have a greenhouse mounted on a floating / rotating barge, etc.).

    The optimal fixed-angle for solar collection glass-or-plastic depends on seasonal heating and cooling requirements for each location, latitude, and climate. Accurate engineering calculations about glass sizing, total BTU's of heat gain / loss, etc. can be made by using the free U.S. Department of Energy “Energy Plus” software.

    Glazing Angle and Orientation

    Trying to optimize the glass angle to maximize winter solar gain by tilting it off of vertical toward roof angle is NOT a good thing to do (all things considered), for a variety of thermal, economic, and structural-engineering reasons.

    Summer and Winter Seasonal Path of the Sun

    When the angle of the sun is low-to-the-horizon in the winter, roof-angled glass causes most of the sunlight to reflect back upward toward the sky. The closer the sun’s rays are to parallel to the glass, the less the solar gain will be. Since winter days are short, and the sun is at the horizon in the morning and evening, the total winter day benefit of roof-angled glass is very small. It gains less heat than it loses on a 24-hour basis when it is cold outside.

    Sloping roof-angle glass on the north side will probably receive ZERO direct solar gain on cold winter days, since the roof peak shades it entirely when the winter sun is low. Diffuse daylight has limited thermal benefit. It would probably cost less to use solid-state electric plant lighting with an insulated roof, than to pay for the heat lost through roof-angled glass at night.

    Seasonal Path of the Sun Summer and Winter

    Warm air rises (like a hot-air balloon) and touches the roof-angled glass, losing as much as a million BTU’s of heat or more on cold winter nights in the north. To prevent plants from freezing, expensive supplemental heat is REQUIRED at night. This heat probably costs more than any benefit received from roof-angled glass, when the sun is low on the horizon on short winter days. An insulated roof with NO GLASS does not have this problem.

    In the summer, the days are long and the sun is 47-degrees higher at noon (nearly overhead) than on the shortest winter days, depending on your latitude. In the summer, the sun’s rays are almost perpendicular to roof-angled glass - Creating a solar furnace for hours each day that makes the inside much hotter than the outside air temperature. Even huge electricity-consuming 36” fans can NOT cool the interior air temperature enough in most locations. The inside air will be hotter than the outside air. This avoidable excess heat is harmful to many types of greenhouse plants (and to human workers).

    Most forms of glass and plastic have very-little structural strength. When installed vertically, glass (or plastic) bears its own weight, because only a small area (the top edge) is subject to gravity. However, as the glass angle is tilted off of the vertical axis, increased area (the sloped cross-section) has to bear the full force of gravity – Making it sag and deform.

    Snow and Hail Easily Break Window-Thickness Roof-Angle Glass
    Major loss of investment, time, effort, plants, hope, dreams, and potential income

    Snow and HailEasily  Break Roof-Angled Glass

    Vertical glass does NOT build up snow loads – Snow immediately slides off of vertical glass. You should minimize horizontal surfaces at the base of the glass, so snow will not build up and shade the equator-facing glass wall.

    Horizontal reflective surfaces (like snow) next to a vertical south wall INCREASE solar thermal gain, when the winter sun is low on the horizon. The sun's rays reflect off of the cold white snow into the greenhouse - warming the air, accelerating plant growth, and lighting the insulated ceiling (which should be bright white).

    A vertical glass wall costs much-less to construct, and is thermally superior to roof-angled glass IN ALL LOCATIONS (all things considered).

    Glass is very brittle - It does not flex much before breaking. To counteract this, you must increase the thickness (and weight) of the glass, or use much-smaller panes of glass with an increased number and weight of structural supports to hold the glazing.

    Both thick glass and extra structural supports significantly increase overall cost. Thick glass or increased structural supports also greatly reduce beneficial solar-thermal gain potential.

    Since 1979, Zero Energy Design® has found that standard 34” x 76” low-lead, high-emissivity, single-pane, common patio-door glass (made in very-high volumes) mounted vertically is the most-cost-effective, durable glazing for the equator-facing (south) greenhouse wall, with minimum structural-support requirement, and maximum solar-thermal gain potential.

    It is very difficult to control daytime solar heat gain in the summer, and nighttime winter heat loss, in a greenhouse with sloped glass. Day-to-day variations in cloud cover and exterior temperature are easy to control with vertical glass, by using movable shade screens, awnings, window quilts, or insulated shutters. These systems can be manual, or automated with sensor-controlled minimal-use electric motors. This costs MUCH LESS than operating large winter heaters and summer exhaust fans.

    Sidewall glazing is NOT recommended for the north, east, or especially the west side of thermal greenhouse – It causes more undesirable heat transfer than beneficial solar gain. Roof-angle and west-facing glass are both very bad in the summer. IF glass is used anywhere except vertical equator-facing glass, it should have movable shading and insulation panels for use summer and winter.

    Roof Angle Glass vs. South Verticle Glass

    Vertical glazing collects almost as much winter solar heat as sloped glazing, without the many disadvantages. A vertical south-facing glass wall can support larger areas of glazing relative to the necessary structural support area. The vertical wall is much less expensive to engineer, build and maintain than a sloping wall.

    Roof-angled glass collects less a lot of exterior dust. Condensation moisture at night turns the dust into sticky glue. The next day, the sun bakes the glue goo, making it more difficult to remove. This gunk builds up day after day, further reducing winter solar gain through the angled glass. This is a significant problem in locations where heavy rains are rare.

    A glass pyramid (like B2, et.al.) is the WORST of all glazing designs. It loses heat in the winter and is a summer solar furnace.

    Vertical glazing is easier to install and much-less susceptible to dirt, breakage and leaking. It is also easier to shade the sunspace during the summer with vertical glazing. A well-designed roof overhang will shade south-facing vertical glazing during the summer, while allowing maximum winter solar-heat gain. Movable insulation and shading devices such as blinds, shutters, shade screens, awnings, or window quilts are much easier to install and use. They can be manual, or precisely automated based on daily conditions with motors and sensors.

    Glass on the east-and-west walls is NOT recommended for sunspaces. West-facing glass is MUCH worse than eastern glass on hot summer afternoons. Sunlight entering east-facing glazing occurs early in the day and is less likely to cause unwanted solar gain on mild spring-and-fall days. Shading devices can best used to block limited eastern glass in the summer.

    Never use Roof Angled Glass

    Vertical equator-facing glazing is the overall best option for greenhouses
    - almost everywhere that the sun shines during the winter.

    Precise details depend on specific location.
    They can be calculated with DOE's "Energy Plus", or other similar software.

    The novice solar Architects of The Eden Project and Biosphere 2 IGNORED the U.S. DOE, and the thirty-year-old passive-solar-energy demonstrations by Zero Energy Design since 1979. The Eden and Biosphere 2 buildings look interesting (to the unenlightened), but they are poorly designed from a thermal perspective.

    Just because MANY so called “experts” make the same mistake, does NOT make it correct. Learn to think outside the box.

     

    Large Scale American Commercial Hydroponic Greenhouses

    EuroFresh Farms Greenhouses Willcox Arizona

    Eurofresh Farms has 318 acres of computer-climate-controlled CO2-enriched hydroponic greenhouses at 32.2 degrees north latitude, 4,167-foot elevation, in sunny Willcox, Arizona. Their operation is a mixed bag of state-of-the-art and obsolete unsustainable use of agribusiness technology.

    There are many good-and-bad lessons to be learned from Eurofresh Farms:

    Video 1 and Video 2 and Video 3

    The Eurofresh Farms conventional all-glass greenhouses are extremely energy inefficient, and therefore unsustainable. The small amount of vertical south-facing glass is covered up by the adjacent greenhouse. They must burn large amounts of natural gas to heat water to keep plants from freezing on cold winter nights at high elevation. In the summer, ventilation fans consume a lot of expensive electricity, and evaporative cooling wastes a lot of scarce water in the dry desert climate.

    Such obsolete inefficient all-glass greenhouses should not be imitated by anyone anywhere.

    The high-quality Eurofresh produce is shipped over a thousand miles away with diesel fuel, which will not be affordable in the near future. Over 80% petroleum pump price inflation since 2009 has significantly impacted the price and profit of their produce. Eurofresh Farms was forced into Chapter 11 bankruptcy to restructure their unprofitable growing debt.

    Greenhouse food production must soon be distributed close to where the consumers are

    Obsolete agribusiness-as-usual cannot continue much longer, even with state-of-the-art technology

    The world must rapidly reinvent large-scale food production, or go bankrupt and STARVE

    Professors must be required to STOP teaching failed status quo

     

    China's Single Slope Solar Greenhouses - Large-scale low-cost year-round pervasive food production

    China is land of many mountains, and 1.3 billion mouths to feed. In ancient times (over 10,000 years ago), Chinese communities were developed in fertile valleys between mountains. The runoff from seasonal monsoon rains sometimes flooded the valleys - destroying homes and agricultural crops. Overpopulation overran what little flat land that was available in some parts of China. Over thousands of years, many mountain-area Chinese learned to dig terraces into the foothills - above the floods - for their homes and food crops. Runoff rain is captured for water-thirsty rice, etc. Monsoon rain runoff is diverted away from homes with earth berms.

    Longsheng China Terrace

    Since the 1970's energy crises, the Chinese have been developing an innovation that translates into the name "single slope solar greenhouse." It is somewhat similar to (but less sophisticated than) the shape of our first Zero Energy Design® integrated solarium in 1979.

    The Chinese single slope solar greenhouse design pattern probably began on south-facing terrace slopes. Flexible hoops (made of bamboo, etc.) were placed over existing crops, and then translucent thin plastic film covered the hoops. The net affect is a very-low-cost low-tech zero energy greenhouse with the mountain on the north, east and west sides, and a single south-facing slope that captures free sunshine in the winter.

    The earth floor, north, east and west walls provide huge "thermal mass" which stores free solar heat during winter days and releases it slowly on long winter nights. These inexpensive terraced greenhouses do not need any electricity, lights, fans, or fuel to keep plants from freezing on winter nights. They extend the growing season to all year long. They are effective in latitudes from 32 to 43 degrees (depending on altitude), where the summers are hot and temperature drops below freezing in the winter. Since the plastic film is a poor insulator, they have hand-made straw mats that can roll down and cover the plastic to conserve heat on winter nights, and block excess solar gain during summer days.

    The Chinese single slope solar greenhouse has been adapted for widespread use on flat land. Construction begins with a (4 or 5 foot) thick insulating thermal mass wall. This wall is made from local earth materials such as rocks and dried mud blocks, with a soil that has clay and sand as mortar. This becomes the massive north support wall - oriented east-to-west. The two side (east and west) walls are then made in a similar way. There is a short roof with interior structural supports. (ZED feels that this roof should be wider and better insulated than it is in most Chinese greenhouses.)

    The interior of the earth walls could be rough with high surface area to maximize solar heat transfer day and night. The outside of these walls should be smooth to minimize convective and conductive heat transfer surface area. Flexible hoops or lightweight trusses extend from the top of the north wall roof down to the ground on the south side. They are then covered with plastic film. A roll-down hand-made straw mat is mounted on top of the roof, at the top of the translucent plastic film, for summer day and winter night insulation as needed.

    Single Slope Solar Greenhouse China

    The term "single slope" is a misnomer. The transparent film is actually a curve - most of which is inefficient roof-angle. This popular Chinese design is not perfect thermally. There is much room for improvement and local climate optimization (with computer modeling). The curved-shape sun catcher should NOT be imitated everywhere, but it is: (1) far more effective than conventional traditional inefficient all-glass greenhouses, (2) costs much less to construct by hand with local materials (except for the plastic film), (3) is a sustainable Zero Energy solution with no fuel required to operate, and zero harmful emissions, and (4) has been proven very effective for more than twenty years in China.

    China now has hundreds of miles covered with tens of thousands of single slope solar greenhouses. They are being imitated in countries including Japan, Korea, and Russia. The government is encouraging their rapid expansion, with high hope for abundant year-round fresh organic food production (without health-damaging biocides or preservatives). News Article

    China cannot afford the capital investment for widespread use of energy-inefficient American-style petroleum-powered factory farm equipment. China's food production has always been labor-intensive and family oriented. Their people are highly motivated to do whatever is necessary to feed their families and keep their cohesive communities from starving. Single slope solar greenhouses make the Chinese people more productive on an annual basis.

    Starving nations around the world need to pay attention to the proven possibilities for zero-energy, climate-controlled, inexpensive solar greenhouses.

    In a high-productivity world with rising unemployment problems, trading motivated human labor for unsustainable diesel fuel may not be such a bad idea in the long run.

    How will we provide sufficient food for 8 billion people without any low-cost oil available in the near future?

    Sometimes, being unable to afford STUPID ideas is a good thing - Necessity is the mother of invention

     

    Here is a more-scientific vertical-glass side-lit greenhouse design
    for the proposed Mars colony - Resists downward cosmic radiation:


    Mars Foundation Side Lit Greenhouse

     

    Green House Sawtooth Roof

    One option for Emerald Eco-City is to increase our food-growing acreage by covering the entire top floor with greenhouse space, and using a Sawtooth Roof

    This approach may be effective is some locations where the winter heating degree days are greater than the summer cooling degree days. (It is not effective in all locations.)

    Example Large Scale Sawtooth Roof Sawtooth Roof Greenhouse Detail

     

    Zero Energy Design® has been demonstrating cost-effective passive-solar greenhouse innovations and growing some of our own food since 1979. Ancient Greeks and Romans did it over two millennia ago.

    Emerald Eco-City may soon become the world’s largest-and-best source of pragmatic greenhouse horticulture knowledge

    There is still much room for experimentation and radical innovation

    Students of Nature will love our Eco-City goals for a sustainable future

    We will seek the world’s best-and-brightest as students, interns and research scientists

    Does this interest you? Are you concerned about food production when there is no more oil?

    We sincerely wish all of our readers an Abundant New Life In Harmony With Nature

    Lifelong Learning In An Ever-Expanding Universe Of Endless Possibilities TM

    We enthusiastically invite constructive suggestions and collaboration from our friends
    E-Mail To:   ZEDMaster@ZeroEnergyDesign.com